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Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy has become an important tool for axillary lymph node staging in women with early-stage breast cancer. This review examines data regarding the staging accuracy, indications and technical aspects of the procedure, and clinical trials investigating the technique. Multiple studies now confirm that sentinel(More)
BRAF inhibitors elicit rapid antitumor responses in the majority of patients with BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma, but acquired drug resistance is almost universal. We sought to identify the core resistance pathways and the extent of tumor heterogeneity during disease progression. We show that mitogen-activated protein kinase reactivation mechanisms were(More)
Activated RAS promotes dimerization of members of the RAF kinase family. ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors activate ERK signalling by transactivating RAF dimers. In melanomas with mutant BRAF(V600E), levels of RAS activation are low and these drugs bind to BRAF(V600E) monomers and inhibit their activity. This tumour-specific inhibition of ERK signalling(More)
PURPOSE Immediate complete axillary lymphadenectomy (ALND) after sentinel lymphadenectomy (SLND) has confirmed that tumor-negative sentinel nodes accurately predict tumor-free axillary nodes in breast cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized that SLND alone in patients with tumor-negative sentinel nodes would achieve axillary control, with minimal complications.(More)
PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade provides significant clinical benefits for melanoma patients. We analyzed the somatic mutanomes and transcriptomes of pretreatment melanoma biopsies to identify factors that may influence innate sensitivity or resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. We find that overall high mutational loads associate with improved survival, and(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer originates in breast epithelium and is associated with progressive molecular and morphologic changes. Women with atypical breast ductal epithelial cells have an increased relative risk of breast cancer. In this study, ductal lavage, a new procedure for collecting ductal cells with a microcatheter, was compared with nipple aspiration(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this preclinical study was to determine the effectiveness of RAF265, a multikinase inhibitor, for treatment of human metastatic melanoma and to characterize traits associated with drug response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Advanced metastatic melanoma tumors from 34 patients were orthotopically implanted to nude mice. Tumors that grew in(More)
PURPOSE The objective of this study was to assess changes in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and in pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the fast-exchange regime (FXR) modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eleven patients with(More)
Margin status is an important prognostic factor for local recurrence after partial mastectomy for breast malignancy. Options for intraoperative evaluation of margin status include gross examination of the specimen, frozen section, and "touch preparation" cytology. This study evaluates the accuracy of gross examination without other intraoperative(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported dye-directed intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selective sentinel lymphadenectomy for primary cutaneous melanomas draining to the neck lymph nodes. In this study we determined whether combining the dye with a radiopharmaceutical agent would enhance our rate of sentinel node detection. METHODS One hundred seventeen(More)