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African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including approximately 900 pseudogenes and approximately 1700 T. brucei-specific genes. Large(More)
The presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bounded intracellular compartments is the defining feature of eukaryotic cells. Endosymbiosis accounts for the origins of mitochondria and plastids, but the evolutionary ancestry of the remaining cellular compartments is incompletely documented. Resolving the evolutionary history of organelle-identity encoding(More)
We report 220 GHz Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) using a 250nm Indium Phosphide HBT technology. Amplifiers reported include designs having 2 and 4 power combined cells. The 4-cell amplifiers exhibited 10 dB small signal gain and 48.8 mW of output power with 4.5 dB gain at 220 GHz. These amplifiers have a 3-dB small signal bandwidth of greater than 48(More)
Spectacular increases in the quantity of sequence data genome have facilitated major advances in eukaryotic comparative genomics. By exploiting homology with classical model organisms, this makes possible predictions of pathways and cellular functions currently impossible to address in intractable organisms. Echoing realization that core metabolic processes(More)
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a macromolecular assembly embedded within the nuclear envelope that mediates bidirectional exchange of material between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Our recent work on the yeast NPC has revealed a simple modularity in its architecture and suggested a common evolutionary origin of the NPC and vesicle coating complexes in a(More)
BACKGROUND In membrane trafficking, the mechanisms ensuring vesicle fusion specificity remain to be fully elucidated. Early models proposed that specificity was encoded entirely by SNARE proteins; more recent models include contributions from Rab proteins, Syntaxin-binding (SM) proteins and tethering factors. Most information on membrane trafficking derives(More)
Genome sequences of diverse free-living protists are essential for understanding eukaryotic evolution and molecular and cell biology. The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi belongs to a varied and ubiquitous protist clade (Heterolobosea) that diverged from other eukaryotic lineages over a billion years ago. Analysis of the 15,727 protein-coding(More)
The presence of multiple membrane-bound intracellular compartments is a major feature of eukaryotic cells. Many of the proteins required for formation and maintenance of these compartments share an evolutionary history. Here, we identify the SEA (Seh1-associated) protein complex in yeast that contains the nucleoporin Seh1 and Sec13, the latter subunit of(More)
Eukaryogenesis, the origin of the eukaryotic cell, represents one of the fundamental evolutionary transitions in the history of life on earth. This event, which is estimated to have occurred over one billion years ago, remains rather poorly understood. While some well-validated examples of fossil microbial eukaryotes for this time frame have been described,(More)
A solid state power amplifier MMIC is demonstrated with 180mW of saturated output power at 214GHz, from an unthinned die, and a small signal S21 gain of 22.0dB. 3-dB bandwidth extends from below 210GHz to 230GHz. PDC is 12.9W. PA Cell design uses a 250nm InP HBT process and a novel three-port tuning network. Three levels of on-wafer power combining in(More)