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Program monitoring and evaluation (M&E) has the potential to be a cornerstone of health systems strengthening and of evidence-informed implementation and scale-up of HIV-related services in resource-limited settings. We discuss common challenges to M&E systems used in the rapid scale-up of HIV services as well as innovations that may have relevance to(More)
We have designed a research platform for a perceptually guided robot, which also serves as a demonstrator for a coming generation of service robots. In order to operate semi-autonomously, these require a capacity for learning about their environment and tasks, and will have to interact directly with their human operators. Thus, they must be supplied with(More)
The efflux pump P-glycoprotein decreases drug penetration into cells and tissues. To determine whether nelfinavir or its metabolites inhibit P-glycoprotein in lymphocytes from a healthy volunteer, whole blood cells from human immunodeficiency virus-negative donors were incubated either in human plasma to which nelfinavir or its M8 metabolite were added ex(More)
HIV-seronegative subjects with hepatic impairment (6 mild, 6 moderate) and 12 matched healthy controls received nelfinavir 1250 mg every 12 hours with food for 2 weeks. Mild impairment did not significantly change nelfinavir or major metabolite (M8) steady-state exposures compared with controls. In subjects with moderate impairment, steady-state area under(More)
BACKGROUND The nucleotide analogue, tenofovir, has been shown to lower plasma atazanavir levels in pharmacokinetic trials, an interaction that may be partly reversed by the addition of ritonavir, whereas plasma tenofovir levels are themselves raised when the drug is combined with lopinavir/ritonavir. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of tenofovir(More)
In a classic statement, Hauser and Duncan (1959) defined demography as “the study of the size, territorial distribution, and composition of population, changes therein, and the components of such changes” (p. 2). It was fortunate that Hauser and Duncan explicitly included “composition of population” and “changes therein” in their definition, for their(More)
The dominant scienti c methodology for short term forecasting in important elections uses trial-heat polls, in which a sample of respondents report their current electoral preferences. Election markets, where self-selected participants trade shares of candidates at prices predictive of election day results, provide an alternative forecasting method. Because(More)
OBJECTIVES This study evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetic interaction between ritonavir-boosted saquinavir and nelfinavir. METHODS Open label, multiple-dose, two parallel-groups, single crossover study conducted in 24 HIV-infected patients (12 in each group). Patients in the nelfinavir group added saquinavir/ritonavir, 1000/100 mg twice daily to(More)
The objective of the NASA Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) project is to provide educators at the elementary, secondary, and undergraduate levels the tools and resources to access NASA climate information and related Earth system information, in order to engage students in critical thinking about global climate change and the potential impacts on(More)