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Facilitation often occurs in environments where extreme climatic factors favour positive rather than negative species interactions. This includes larger ‘nurse’ cushion plants in some alpine environments that shelter other species from abiotic filters such as abrasive winds and low temperatures. This type of facilitation can contribute to higher alpha(More)
Tourism and recreation are large industries employing millions of people and contribute over US$2.01 trillion to the global economy. Unfortunately they also have diverse and sometimes severe environmental impacts affecting many species, including those that are rare and threatened. To assess the extent to which these industries threaten vascular plants, we(More)
Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the(More)
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