Mark B. Feinberg

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The thymus represents the major site of the production and generation of T cells expressing alphabeta-type T-cell antigen receptors. Age-related involution may affect the ability of the thymus to reconstitute T cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens that are lost during HIV infection; this effect has been seen after chemotherapy and bone-marrow(More)
Pathogenic HIV infections of humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections of rhesus macaques are characterized by generalized immune activation and progressive CD4(+) T cell depletion. In contrast, natural reservoir hosts for SIV, such as sooty mangabeys, do not progress to AIDS and show a lack of aberrant immune activation and preserved CD4(+)(More)
To explore the human T cell response to acute viral infection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8(+) T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines--two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines generated a brisk primary effector CD8(+) T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be(More)
HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques who remain healthy despite long-term infection exhibit exceptionally low levels of virus replication and active antiviral cellular immune responses. In contrast, sooty mangabey monkeys that represent natural hosts for SIV infection do not develop AIDS despite high levels of virus replication and limited(More)
Considerable controversy and uncertainty have surrounded the biological function of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 nef gene product. Initial studies suggested that this early, nonstructural viral protein functioned as a negative regulatory factor; thus, it was proposed to play a role in establishing or maintaining viral latency. In contrast,(More)
The immunodeficiency that follows HIV infection is related to the virus-mediated killing of infected CD4(+) T cells, the chronic activation of the immune system, and the impairment of T cell production. In this study we show that in HIV-infected individuals the loss of IL-7R (CD127) expression defines the expansion of a subset of CD8(+) T cells, specific(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently stimulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1-long terminal repeat (HIV-1-LTR) CAT constructs transfected into monocyte/macrophage-like cell lines but not a T cell line. This effect appears to be mediated through the induction of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that(More)
The Poxviridae family members vaccinia and variola virus enter mammalian cells, replicate outside the nucleus and produce virions that travel to the cell surface along microtubules, fuse with the plasma membrane and egress from infected cells toward apposing cells on actin-filled membranous protrusions. We show that cell-associated enveloped virions (CEV)(More)
BACKGROUND Trials in macaque models play an essential role in the evaluation of biomedical interventions that aim to prevent HIV infection, such as vaccines, microbicides, and systemic chemoprophylaxis. These trials are usually conducted with very high virus challenge doses that result in infection with certainty. However, these high challenge doses do not(More)
Given the dual role of CD4 T cells as both immune effectors and targets for HIV infection, the balance of CD4 versus CD8 T cell-mediated responses induced by candidate AIDS vaccines may be critical in determining postvaccination infection outcomes. An attenuated recombinant varicella-zoster virus vaccine expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)(More)