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Single molecules of DNA or RNA can be detected as they are driven through an alpha-hemolysin channel by an applied electric field. During translocation, nucleotides within the polynucleotide must pass through the channel pore in sequential, single-file order because the limiting diameter of the pore can accommodate only one strand of DNA or RNA at a time.(More)
An orphan receptor discovered in 1993 was called bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) because of 47-51% amino acid identity with bombesin (Bn) receptors. Its pharmacology is unknown, because no naturally occurring tissues have sufficient receptors to allow studies. We made two cell lines stably expressing the human BRS-3 (hBRS-3). hBRS-3 was overexpressed in(More)
The gramicidin channel contains a single strand of water molecules associated through hydrogen bonds. Previous work has shown that channels of similar size are formed by association of transmembrane alpha helices of synthetic leucine-serine peptides. Both types of channels translocate protons with considerable selectivity relative to other cations, and it(More)
Consequent to agonist exposure, many G protein-coupled receptors undergo sequestration or internalization. Results with receptors linked to adenylate cyclase, such as the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, or receptors linked to phospholipase C (PLC) have provided conflicting results regarding the role of second messenger-dependent (i.e., protein kinase A or C)(More)
An emerging DNA sequencing technique uses protein or solid-state pores to analyze individual strands as they are driven in single-file order past a nanoscale sensor. However, uncontrolled electrophoresis of DNA through these nanopores is too fast for accurate base reads. Here, we describe forward and reverse ratcheting of DNA templates through the(More)
Several guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors are known to be rapidly phosphorylated after agonist exposure. In this study we show that the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is rapidly phosphorylated in response to agonist exposure. When [32P]orthophosphate-labeled cells were exposed to bombesin, the receptor was maximally(More)
The bombesin family of G-protein-coupled receptors includes the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), the neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R), bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3), and bombesin receptor subtype 4 (bb4). All species homologues of GRP-R, NMB-R, and bb4 bind bombesin with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range; by comparison, human BRS-3(More)
RNA and DNA strands produce ionic current signatures when driven through an α-hemolysin channel by an applied voltage. Here we combine this nanopore detector with a support vector machine (SVM) to analyze DNA hairpin molecules on the millisecond time scale. Measurable properties include duplex stem length, base pair mismatches, and loop length. This(More)
Speed, single-base sensitivity and long read lengths make nanopores a promising technology for high-throughput sequencing. We evaluated and optimized the performance of the MinION nanopore sequencer using M13 genomic DNA and used expectation maximization to obtain robust maximum-likelihood estimates for insertion, deletion and substitution error rates(More)
The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is one of three members of the mammalian bombesin subfamily of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors that mediate diverse biological responses including secretion, neuromodulation, chemotaxis, and growth. The X chromosome-linked GRP-R gene is expressed widely during embryonic development and(More)