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Dopamine neurons play a key role in reward-related behaviors. Reward coding theories predict that dopamine neurons will be inhibited by or will not respond to aversive stimuli. Paradoxically, between 3 and 49% of presumed dopamine neurons are excited by aversive stimuli. We found that, in the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized rats, the population of(More)
The dopamine system is involved in motivation, reward and learning, and dysfunction in this system has been implicated in several disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and schizophrenia. Key progress in our understanding of its functions has come from extracellular in vivo electrophysiological recordings from midbrain dopamine neurons. Numerous(More)
Midbrain dopamine neurons play central roles in reward processing. It is widely assumed that all dopamine neurons encode the same information. Some evidence, however, suggests functional differences between subgroups of dopamine neurons, particularly with respect to processing nonrewarding, aversive stimuli. To directly test this possibility, we recorded(More)
Midbrain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field play key roles in reward processing, learning and memory, and movement. Within these midbrain regions and admixed with the dopamine neurons, are also substantial populations of GABAergic neurons that regulate dopamine neuron activity and have projection targets(More)
Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress. However, the mechanism by which CRF modulates neuronal activity in circuits involved in drug addiction is poorly understood. Here we show that CRF induces a potentiation of NMDAR(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons are widely distributed in brainstem structures involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, locomotion, and attention. These brainstem structures include the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which is traditionally characterized by its population of cholinergic neurons that have local and wide-ranging(More)
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) exhibit functional heterogeneity that likely underpins their diverse roles in behavior. We examined how the functional diversity of identified dopaminergic neurons in vivo correlates with differences in somato-dendritic architecture and afferent synaptic organization. Stereological analysis of(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) regions contain populations of dopamine neurons, often considered to be a dorsal caudal extension of the A10 group [mostly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)]. Recent studies suggest they are involved in promoting wakefulness and mediate some of the antinociceptive and(More)