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How do drugs of abuse modify neural circuitry and thereby lead to addictive behaviour? As for many forms of experience-dependent plasticity, modifications in glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been suggested to be particularly important. Evidence of such changes in response to in vivo administration of drugs of abuse is lacking, however. Here we show(More)
Dopamine neurons play a key role in reward-related behaviors. Reward coding theories predict that dopamine neurons will be inhibited by or will not respond to aversive stimuli. Paradoxically, between 3 and 49% of presumed dopamine neurons are excited by aversive stimuli. We found that, in the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized rats, the population of(More)
The dopamine system is involved in motivation, reward and learning, and dysfunction in this system has been implicated in several disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and schizophrenia. Key progress in our understanding of its functions has come from extracellular in vivo electrophysiological recordings from midbrain dopamine neurons. Numerous(More)
Midbrain dopamine neurons play central roles in reward processing. It is widely assumed that all dopamine neurons encode the same information. Some evidence, however, suggests functional differences between subgroups of dopamine neurons, particularly with respect to processing nonrewarding, aversive stimuli. To directly test this possibility, we recorded(More)
Stress increases addictive behaviors and is a common cause of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in the modulation of drug taking by stress. However, the mechanism by which CRF modulates neuronal activity in circuits involved in drug addiction is poorly understood. Here we show that CRF induces a potentiation of NMDAR(More)
Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) exhibit functional heterogeneity that likely underpins their diverse roles in behavior. We examined how the functional diversity of identified dopaminergic neurons in vivo correlates with differences in somato-dendritic architecture and afferent synaptic organization. Stereological analysis of(More)
Serotonin is widely implicated in aversive processing. It is not clear, however, whether serotonin neurons encode information about aversive stimuli. We found that, in the dorsal raphe of anesthetized rats, most neurochemically-identified clocklike serotonin neurons were phasically excited by noxious footshocks, whereas most bursting serotonin neurons were(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) regions contain populations of dopamine neurons, often considered to be a dorsal caudal extension of the A10 group [mostly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)]. Recent studies suggest they are involved in promoting wakefulness and mediate some of the antinociceptive and(More)