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Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) encodes an RNA binding protein that acts as a negative translational regulator. We have developed a Drosophila fragile X syndrome model using loss-of-function mutants and overexpression of the FMR1 homolog (dfxr). dfxr nulls display enlarged synaptic terminals, whereas neuronal overexpression results in fewer and(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
The finding that oxidative damage, including that to nucleic acids, in Alzheimer's disease is primarily limited to the cytoplasm of susceptible neuronal populations suggests that mitochondrial abnormalities might be part of the spectrum of chronic oxidative stress of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to mitochondrial DNA(More)
Chronic stress produces structural changes and neuronal damage especially in the hippocampus. Because neurotrophic factors affect neuron survival, we questioned whether they might be relevant to the heightened vulnerability of hippocampal neurons following stress. To begin investigating this possibility, we examined the effects of immobilization stress (2(More)
Recently, we demonstrated a significant increase of an oxidized nucleoside derived from RNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8OHG), and an oxidized amino acid, nitrotyrosine in vulnerable neurons of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). To determine whether oxidative damage is an early- or end-stage event in the process of neurodegeneration in AD, we investigated the(More)
Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to act as a key sensing mechanism, responding to hormones and nutrients in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved are unclear. The effects of long-term manipulation of hypothalamic AMPK on energy balance are also(More)
Damage from free radicals has been demonstrated in susceptible neuronal populations in cases of Alzheimer disease. In this study, we investigated whether iron, a potent source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical that is generated by the Fenton reaction with H2O2, might contribute to the source of radicals in Alzheimer disease. We found, using a modified(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative damage to proteins and other macromolecules is a salient feature of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Establishing the source of oxidants is key to understanding what role they play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and one way to examine this issue is to determine which oxidants are involved in(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons. In this study, we explored the involvement of an abnormal mitochondrial dynamics by investigating the changes in the expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins in AD brain and the potential cause and consequence of these changes in neuronal cells. We found(More)
Previous studies showed a poor correlation between sarcolemmal K+ currents and cardioprotection for ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) openers. Diazoxide is a weak cardiac sarcolemmal KATP opener, but it is a potent opener of mitochondrial KATP, making it a useful tool for determining the importance of this mitochondrial site. In reconstituted bovine heart(More)