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One of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the world is inadequate access to clean water and sanitation. Problems with water are expected to grow worse in the coming decades, with water scarcity occurring globally, even in regions currently considered water-rich. Addressing these problems calls out for a tremendous amount of research to(More)
We report fabrication and use of a flexible array of nano-apertures for photolithography on curved surfaces. The batch-fabricated apertures are formed of metal-coated silicone tips. The apertures are formed at the end of the silicone tips by either electrochemical etching of the metal or plasma etching of a protective mask followed by wet chemical etching.(More)
The extension of microfluidic devices to include three-dimensional fluidic networks allows complex fluidic and chemical manipulations but requires innovative methods to interface fluidic layers. Externally controllable interconnects, employing nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membranes containing nanometer-diameter capillaries, are described that produce(More)
This paper demonstrates a chemical surface modification method for covalent attachment of various polymers by using silane-based "click" chemistry on silica surfaces and within glass microchannels suitable for CE systems. Modified surfaces are characterized by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform(More)
We present a novel microfabrication process for realizing a new type of flexible sensory "smart skin". In this work, we focus on demonstration of a skin containing a two dimensional array of tactile sensors using polyimide and metal strain gauges. A novel polymer microfabrication approach coupled with surface release methods is demonstrated. The process(More)
The design and fabrication of a multilayered polymer micro-nanofluidic chip is described that consists of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layers that contain microfluidic channels separated in the vertical direction by polycarbonate (PC) membranes that incorporate an array of nanometre diameter cylindrical pores. The materials are optically transparent to(More)
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have the potential for applications in energy conversion and energy storage, but their development has been impeded by problems with the membrane electrode assembly. Here, we demonstrate that a silicon-based inorganic-organic membrane offers a number of advantages over Nafion--the membrane widely used as a proton exchange(More)
Due to the numerous toxicological effects of lead, its presence in the environment needs to be effectively monitored. Incorporating a biosensing element within a microfluidic platform enables rapid and reliable determinations of lead at trace levels. A microchip-based lead sensor is described here that employs a lead-specific DNAzyme (also called catalytic(More)
This article demonstrates the feasibility of making a partially buried micro gas chromatography (micro-GC) column with a rounded channel wall profile, which enables coating the stationary phase more uniformly and shows better separation characteristics than a square deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) wall profile. A buried structure fabrication method was(More)