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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell differentiation and migration. Their signals are transduced by the kinase receptors BMPR-I and BMPR-II, leading to Smad transcription factor activation via BMPR-I. LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 is a key regulator of actin dynamics as it phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin, an(More)
One of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the world is inadequate access to clean water and sanitation. Problems with water are expected to grow worse in the coming decades, with water scarcity occurring globally, even in regions currently considered water-rich. Addressing these problems calls out for a tremendous amount of research to(More)
Mammalian genomes carry hundreds of Krüppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) genes, most of which reside in familial clusters. ZNF genes encoding Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) motifs are especially prone to this type of tandem organization. Despite their prevalence, little is known about the functions or evolutionary histories of these clustered gene families. Here(More)
We present a novel microfabrication process for realizing a new type of flexible sensory "smart skin". In this work, we focus on demonstration of a skin containing a two dimensional array of tactile sensors using polyimide and metal strain gauges. A novel polymer microfabrication approach coupled with surface release methods is demonstrated. The process(More)
Childhood lead poisoning is characteristically a disease that occurs between the second and third years of life, generally resulting from the child's ingestion of lead-based paint or dust. However, lead poisoning may also appear in the first year of life. The case of a 4-month-old infant is reported in which the preparation of infant formula in a(More)
—This paper describes a new bidirectional high-pressure gas electrostatic microvalve that opens and closes in 50 µs or less. The microvalve consists of a valve-closing electrode, a flexible movable membrane, and a valve-opening electrode that is directly opposed to the valve-closing electrode. The membrane contains an embedded electrode, so the valve can(More)
Silicon-based dielectric thin films such as SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 are commonly used as insulation layers in electrostatic microactuators to protect the device from short circuiting if the electrodes are in contact. However, dielectric films can store bulk and/or surface static charges. In this paper, the effect that these static charges have on the force(More)
Dielectrophoretic separation of particles finds a variety of applications in the capture of species such as cells, viruses, proteins, DNA from biological systems, as well as other organic and inorganic contaminants from water. The ability to capture particles is constrained by poor volumetric scaling of separation force with respect to particle diameter, as(More)