Mark A. Shafer

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This publication primarily presents economic research aimed at improving policymaking by the Federal Reserve System and other governmental authorities. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis or the Federal Reserve System. The Quarterly Review is published by the Research(More)
This study aims to examine how future climate, temperature and precipitation specifically, are expected to change under the A2, A1B, and B1 emission scenarios over the six states that make up the Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP): Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Mississippi. SCIPP is a member of the National Oceanic and(More)
Understanding the characteristics of historical droughts will benefit water resource managers because it will reveal the possible impacts that future changes in climate may have on drought, and subsequently, the availability of water resources. The goal of this study was to reconstruct historical drought occurrences and assess future drought risk for the(More)
50 adolescent males attending a general teen clinic (aged 13-21) were evaluated for urethritis. After examination of sediment from the initial 15-20 ml of voided urine, first-catch urine (FCU), specimen urethral swabs were taken for culture of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 21 of 23 (91%) males with greater than 10 leucocytes per(More)
Experience is what you get when you don't get what you want. The experience of Hurricane Katrina was not what anyone in New Orleans wanted, yet three years after New Orleans was struck by Hurricane Katrina, the city proved they were ready for the next big one. As the National Hurricane Center forecasts started indicating a possible category 3 or stronger(More)
This paper examines past drought and assesses future drought scenarios for the Arkansas Red River Basin using two common drought indexes, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Historical climate data within the 1900–2009 time frame were used to derive the past drought index estimates. The projected climate data(More)