Mark A Scaife

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Carotenoid biosynthesis is highly conserved and well characterized up to the synthesis of beta-carotene. Conversely, the synthesis of astaxanthin from beta-carotene is less well characterized. Regardless, astaxanthin is a highly sought natural product, due to its various industrial applications and elevated antioxidant capacity. In this article, 12(More)
Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-diketo-β-carotene) (1) is a carotenoid of significant commercial value due to its superior antioxidant potential, application as a component of animal feeds, and ongoing research that links its application to the treatment and prevention of human pathologies. The high commercial cost of 1 is also based upon its complex(More)
Canthaxanthin has a substantial commercial market in aquaculture, poultry production, and cosmetic and nutraceutical industries. Commercial production is dominated by chemical synthesis; however, changing consumer demands fuel research into the development of biotechnology processes. Highly productive microbial systems to produce carotenoids can be limited(More)
Astaxanthin is a natural product of immense value. Its biosynthesis has been investigated extensively and typically requires the independent activity of two proteins, a β-carotene ketolase and β-carotene hydroxylase. Rational engineering of this pathway has produced limited success with respect to the biological production of astaxanthin. Random mutagenesis(More)
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