Mark A. Messerli

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Pollen tubes grown in vitro require an intracellular tip-high gradient of Ca2+ in order to elongate. Moreover, after about 2 h in vitro both the tip Ca2+ and the elongation rate of lily tubes begin to oscillate regularly with large amplitudes. This raises the question of the phase relation between these two oscillations. Previous studies lacked the temporal(More)
It is known that locally elevated Ca2+ at the growing tips of pollen tubes is necessary for pollen tube elongation. Here we show that this localized Ca2+ is also temporally regulated and is closely associated with pulsatile tip growth. Lilium longiflorum pollen tubes were injected with the photoprotein, aequorin, and the Ca2(+)-dependent light output was(More)
Root hairs show highly localized cell expansion focused to their growing tips. This growth pattern is accomplished through restriction of secretion to the elongating apex and modulation of cell wall properties, with the wall just behind the tip becoming rigidified to resist the lateral expansive forces of turgor. In this report we show that root hairs(More)
Fluxes of H+, K+ and Ca2+ were measured with self-referencing ion-selective probes, near the plasma membrane of growing Lilium longiflorum pollen tubes. Measurements from three regions around short, steady-growing tubes showed small, steady influx of H+ over the distal 40 microm and a region of the tube within 50-100 microm of the grain with larger(More)
Self-referencing with ion-selective microelectrodes (ISMs) is a useful approach for monitoring near-real-time ion flux near single cells and across epithelia. While ISMs for H+, Ca2+, and K+ have been optimized for use with self-referencing, ISMs for two other primary inorganic ions, Na+ and Cl-, have not. In this study, we have characterized ISMs based on(More)
Two mechanisms have been proposed as the primary control of oscillating tip growth in Lilium longiflorum Thunb. pollen tubes: changes in cell wall strength (Holdaway-Clarke et al. 1997) or alternatively, changes in turgor pressure (Messerli et al. 2000). Here we have modified the ionic and osmotic concentrations of the growth medium to test predictions(More)
In tip-growing cells, the tip-high Ca(2+) gradient is thought to regulate the activity of components of the growth machinery, including the cytoskeleton, Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory proteins, and the secretory apparatus. In pollen tubes, both the Ca(2+) gradient and cell elongation show oscillatory behavior, reinforcing the link between the two. We report(More)
The mechanism by which growing neurites sense and respond to small applied electrical fields is not known, but there is some evidence that the entry of Ca(2+) from the external medium, with the subsequent formation of intracellular Ca(2+) gradients, is important in this process. We have employed two approaches to test this idea. Xenopus spinal neurites were(More)
Microelectrodes, made from a Cl(-)-selective liquid ion exchanger previously used to measure putative Cl- fluxes in Lilium longiflorum pollen tubes, were characterized. The electrodes were poorly selective, possessing only about 10-fold selectivity for Cl- over other anions tested. They had only 2.4-fold selectivity for Cl- over the anionic form of the H+(More)
Spain's Rio Tinto, or Red River, an example of an extremely acidic (pH 1.7-2.5) environment with a high metal content, teems with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial life. Our recent studies based on small-subunit rRNA genes reveal an unexpectedly high eukaryotic phylogenetic diversity in the river when compared to the relatively low prokaryotic diversity.(More)