Mark A. Laughlin

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Although the CD4 molecule is the principal cellular receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), several CD4-negative cell lines are susceptible to infection with one or more HIV strains. These findings indicate that there are alternate modes of viral entry, perhaps involving one or more receptor molecules. Antibodies against galactosyl ceramide(More)
BACKGROUND The amyloid-beta peptide Abeta(42) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to test the effects of tarenflurbil, a selective Abeta(42)-lowering agent (SALA), on cognition and function in patients with mild to moderate AD. METHODS 210 patients living in the community who had a mini-mental state examination(More)
To evaluate the safety and tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of R-flurbiprofen (Tarenflurbil) in normal elderly individuals and to determine the effect of the drug on amyloid beta 42 (Abeta42) levels, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 48 healthy subjects aged 55 to 80. Three successive cohorts were randomized to doses of(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) penetrates the central nervous system, particularly the cerebrospinal fluid, early in the course of HIV infection, and may cause a progressive encephalopathy in patients prior to the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Neither the specific mechanism for penetration of the virus into the central(More)
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) has been shown to play a central role in stimulating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed viral gene expression. We have previously described a cell line (TE671/RD) that fails to respond to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in terms of(More)
A number of studies have indicated that central nervous system-derived cells can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To determine whether CD4, the receptor for HIV-1 in lymphoid cells, was responsible for infection of neural cells, we characterized infectable human central nervous system tumor lines and primary fetal neural cells(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a complex life cycle, which has made it a difficult target for conventional therapeutic modalities. A single-chain antibody moiety, directed against the HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which rescues unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus of infected cells, has now been developed. This anti-Rev single-chain(More)
Reverse transcription of HIV-1, without detergent or amphipathic peptide-induced permeability of the viral envelope, has been demonstrated to occur in the intact HIV-1 virion. In this report, we demonstrate that the amphipathic domains in the C terminus of the transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) account for the natural permeability of the HIV-1 envelope to(More)
Neurological dysfunction in AIDS occurs in the absence of productive infection of neurons, and may involve modulation of neuronal cell function by viral or cellular products released from surrounding infected cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activator protein Tat may be one such factor, as it can act as a neurotoxin, induces(More)
To investigate potential mechanisms for HIV-1 proviral latency, we generated a set of chronically HIV-1 infected and stably long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (LTR-CAT)-transfected TE671/RD cells, and studied both their virus production and LTR-driven reporter gene expression. Established tissue culture models of retroviral latency in(More)