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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma, characterized by genetic instability, intratumoral histopathological variability, and unpredictable clinical behavior. We investigated global gene expression in surgical samples of brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed large differences between normal brain samples and(More)
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that function by regulating target gene expression posttranscriptionally. They play a critical role in developmental and physiologic processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases including cancer. We examined the expression profiles of 241 human microRNAs in normal tissues and the NCI-60 panel(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play a critical role in developmental and physiological processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancer. They function by regulating target gene expression post-transcriptionally. In this study, we examined the role of oncogenic mir-21 in the pathogenesis of(More)
Oligodendrogliomas of all grades overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas deletion of ink4a/arf is found only in high-grade tumors. We used the S100 beta promoter to generate transgenic mice expressing v-erbB, a transforming allele of EGFR. These mice developed low-grade oligodendroglioma. Transgenic animals heterozygous for ink4a/arf or(More)
Id proteins antagonize basic helix-loop-helix proteins, inhibit differentiation, and enhance cell proliferation. In this study we compared the expression of Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 in the normal pancreas, in pancreatic cancer, and in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that all three Id mRNA species were expressed at high levels in(More)
Id genes encode helix-loop-helix proteins that inhibit transcription by forming inactive heterodimers with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. bHLH proteins normally form either homodimers or heterodimers with other bHLH proteins and bind to a DNA sequence element activating transcription. Id-containing heterodimers are inactive because Id proteins lack(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) carries a dismal prognosis. However, a range of survival times exists, and parameters that define prognostic groups may help to optimize treatment. To identify such prognostic groups, we analyzed tumor tissue from 110 cases of newly diagnosed GBM from two clinical protocols. Similar to other studies, we found no association of(More)
Members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of Id proteins have demonstrated roles in the regulation of differentiation and cell proliferation. Id proteins inhibit differentiation by HLH-mediated heterodimerization with basic HLH transcription factors. This blocks their sequence-specific binding to DNA and activation of target genes that are often(More)
The nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of related enzymes which regulate the production of NO, a free radical gas implicated in a wide variety of biological processes. Vasodilation and increased tumor blood flow, increased vascular permeability, modulation of host tumoricidal activity, and free radical injury to tumor cells and adjacent normal(More)
Proto-oncogenes may be important in the cellular processes central for the growth and differentiation of normal cells. N-myc is a DNA sequence which shares limited homology to the proto-oncogene c-myc and has been found to be amplified in both primary tissue and cell lines from neuroblastoma, a childhood tumour of neuroectodermal origin. Differentiation of(More)