Mark A Holmes

Learn More
BACKGROUND Animals can act as a reservoir and source for the emergence of novel meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in human beings. Here, we report the discovery of a strain of S aureus (LGA251) isolated from bulk milk that was phenotypically resistant to meticillin but tested negative for the mecA gene and a preliminary investigation(More)
The recent finding of a new mecA homologue, mecA(LGA251) , with only 70% nucleotide homology to the conventional mecA gene has brought the routine testing for mecA as a confirmatory test for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) into question. A multiplex PCR was designed to differentiate mecA(LGA251) from the known mecA together with detection(More)
Previous restriction analysis of cloned equine DNA and genomic DNA of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells had indicated the existence of one c epsilon, one c alpha and up to six c gamma genes in the haploid equine genome. The c epsilon and c alpha genes have been aligned on a 30 kb DNA fragment in the order 5' c epsilon-c alpha 3'. Here we describe(More)
Equine IgG possesses four well-defined subisotypes, designated IgGa, IgGb, IgGc and IgG(T) on the basis of their increasing anodal mobility in electrophoresis. However, the preparation of IgGa and IgGb reference proteins has not previously been reported. Certain bacterial cell wall proteins, termed protein A and protein G, have been used for purification of(More)
The report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) encoding a divergent mecA gene in 2011 was highly significant. This homologue, designated mecC, poses diagnostic problems with the potential to be misdiagnosed as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, with important potential consequences for individual patients and for the surveillance of MRSA.(More)
OBJECTIVES A previously unidentified mecA homologue, mecA(LGA251), has recently been described in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from humans and dairy cattle. The origin and epidemiology of this novel homologue are unclear. The objective of this study was to provide basic descriptive information of MRSA isolates harbouring mecA(LGA251)(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960’s. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible(More)
The Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF-1) is an observational multi-institutional prospective study of recovery outcome at 7 days post operatively, as called for by Steffey (1991). Data from 6,255 general anaesthetics (February 91-March 93) were submitted confidentially by 62 clinics. The outcomes of 333 cases which were(More)
This paper describes the production of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) identifying the four recognised equine IgG subisotypes IgG, IgGa, IgGb, IgGc and IgG(T). Pure preparations of the subisotypes for use in immunisations and testing were produced using a combination of gel filtration, salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and protein A(More)
Genome sequencing is revolutionizing clinical microbiology and our understanding of infectious diseases. Previous studies have largely relied on the sequencing of a single isolate from each individual. However, it is not clear what degree of bacterial diversity exists within, and is transmitted between individuals. Understanding this 'cloud of diversity' is(More)