Mark A Helfaer

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Inflicted brain injury is associated with widespread traumatic axonal injury (TAI) and subdural hematoma and is the leading cause of death in infants and children. Anesthetized 3-5-day-old piglets were subjected to either a single (n = 5) or double (n = 6, 15 min apart) rapid (<15 msec), non-impact, axial rotations of the head. Peak rotational velocities(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is important for microtubule stability and neural plasticity and appears to be among the most vulnerable of the cytoskeletal proteins under conditions of neuronal injury. To evaluate the acute effects of moderate severity traumatic brain injury on MAP2, anesthetized, adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoxic ischemic brain injury secondary to pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) may result in acute symptomatic seizures. A high proportion of seizures may be nonconvulsive, so accurate diagnosis requires continuous EEG monitoring. We aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of long-term EEG monitoring, to describe electroencephalographic(More)
Neurobehavioral deficits in higher cortical systems have not been described previously in a large animal model of diffuse brain injury. Anesthetized 3-5 day old piglets were subjected to either mild (142 rad/s) or moderate (188 rad/s) rapid non-impact axial rotations of the head. Multiple domains of cortical function were evaluated 5 times during the 12 day(More)
INTRODUCTION The goal of the present study was to determine whether age-related differences in the acute physiologic response to scaled cortical impact injury contribute to differences in vulnerability to traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), brain temperature (BrT) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured(More)
Cumulative effects of repetitive mild head injury in the pediatric population are unknown. We have developed a cognitive composite dysfunction score that correlates white matter injury severity in neonatal piglets with neurobehavioral assessments of executive function, memory, learning, and problem solving. Anesthetized 3- to 5-day-old piglets were(More)
Seizures are common in pediatric emergency care units, either as the main medical issue or in association with an additional neurological problem. Rapid treatment prolonged and repetitive seizures or status epilepticus is important. Multiple anti-convulsant medications are useful in this setting, and each has various indications and potential adverse(More)
OBJECT This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of preoperative erythropoietin administration in infants scheduled for craniofacial surgery and, in so doing, to minimize problems associated with blood transfusions. METHODS Families were offered the option of having their children receive erythropoietin injections before undergoing craniofacial(More)
Neurofilaments (NF), the intermediate filaments of the neuronal cytoskeleton, provide mechanical stability to the cell. High-molecular-weight NF (NFH) comprises a heavily phosphorylated carboxyl terminal ("sidearm") domain which helps determine interfilament spacing distances. Experimental evidence suggests that dephosphorylation greatly increases the rate(More)
For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two(More)