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  • Mark A Elgar
  • Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical…
  • 1989
One commonly cited benefit to animals that forage in groups is an increase in the probability of detecting a predator, and a decrease in the time spent in predator detection. A mathematical model (Pulliam 1973) predicts a negative relationship between group size and vigilance rates. Over fifty studies of birds and mammals report that the relationship at(More)
A number of taxonomically diverse species of araneoid spiders adorn their orb-webs with conspicuous silk structures, called decorations or stabilimenta. The function of these decorations remains controversial and several explanations have been suggested. These include: (1) stabilising and strengthening the web; (2) hiding and concealing the spider from(More)
Pheromones are chemical signals whose composition varies enormously between species. Despite pheromones being a nearly ubiquitous form of communication, particularly among insects, our understanding of how this diversity has arisen, and the processes driving the evolution of pheromones, is less developed than that for visual and auditory signals. Studies of(More)
The traditional paradigm of male polygamy and female monogamy has been replaced by the recognition that both sexes may typically mate with several partners. As a consequence, much attention has focused on the evolution of polyandry, while the evolutionary significance of monogyny (male monogamy) remains poorly understood. Monogyny, a taxonomically(More)
We examined the publication records of a cohort of 168 life scientists in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology to assess gender differences in research performance. Clear discrepancies in publication rate between men and women appear very early in their careers and this has consequences for the subsequent citation of their work. We show that a(More)
Patterns of sexual dimorphism in dioecious organisms depend on the relative strengths of a variety of selection pressures (Andersson, 1994; Mùller, 1994). For example, selection may favour large female size if this ensures greater fecundity, parental care or dominance in contests over resources. Typically, sexual selection is thought to in ̄uence sexual(More)
Sexual conflict theory predicts an antagonistic coevolution, with each sex evolving adaptations and counter-adaptations to overcome a temporary dominance of the other sex over the control of paternity. Polyandry allows sexual selection to operate after mating has commenced, with male and female interests competing for control of fertilization. There are(More)
The relationship between body size and metabolic rate is a crucial issue in organismal biology and evolution. There has been considerable debate over whether the scaling exponent of the relationship is 0.75 (Kleiber's Law) or 0.67. Here we show that determination of this exponent for mammals depends on both the evolutionary tree and the regression model(More)
Correspondence to: M.L. Thomas The defence of nests from intruders is critical for maintaining the integrity and survival of social insect colonies. Using a sampling method that attempts to minimise genetic influences, we examined whether geographic affinity (the distance between nests) affects non-nestmate recognition. Experimentally staged conflicts(More)