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A healthy individual can mount an immune response to exogenous pathogens while avoiding an autoimmune attack on normal tissues. The ability to distinguish between self and non-self is called 'immunological tolerance' and, for T lymphocytes, involves the generation of a diverse pool of functional T cells through positive selection and the removal of overtly(More)
CD8 serves both as an adhesion molecule for class I MHC molecules and as a coreceptor with the TCR for T cell activation. Here we study the developmental regulation of CD8-mediated binding to noncognate peptide/MHC ligands (i.e., those not bound by the TCR). We show that CD8's ability to bind soluble class I MHC tetramers and to mediate T cell adhesion(More)
T cell tolerance depends on the T cell receptor's affinity for peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligand; this critical parameter determines whether a thymocyte will be included (positive selection) or excluded (negative selection) from the T cell repertoire. A quantitative analysis of ligand binding was performed using an experimental system(More)
T cell clone 2C recognizes the alloantigen L(d) and the positive selecting major histocompatibility complex (MHC), K(b). To explore the molecular basis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) binding to different peptide/MHC (pMHC) complexes, we performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of the 2C TCR. The TCR energy maps for QL9/L(d) and SIYR/K(b) were remarkably(More)
The MutS1 protein recognizes unpaired bases and initiates mismatch repair, which are essential for high-fidelity DNA replication. The homologous MutS2 protein does not contribute to mismatch repair, but suppresses homologous recombination. MutS2 lacks the damage-recognition domain of MutS1, but contains an additional C-terminal extension: the small(More)
The widely accepted kinetic proofreading theory proposes that rapid TCR dissociation from a peptide/MHC ligand allows for stimulation of early but not late T cell activation events, explaining why low-affinity TCR ligands are poor agonists. We identified a low-affinity TCR ligand which stimulated late T cell responses but, contrary to predictions from(More)
Ab stimulation of the TCR rapidly enhances the functional activity of the LFA-1 integrin. Although TCR-mediated changes in LFA-1 activity are thought to promote T cell-APC interactions, the Ag specificity and sensitivity of TCR-mediated triggering of LFA-1 is not clear. We demonstrate that peptide/MHC (pMHC) tetramers rapidly enhance LFA-1-dependent(More)
The CD8 coreceptor contributes to the recognition of peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligands by stabilizing the TCR-pMHC interaction and enabling efficient signaling initiation. It is unclear though, which structural elements of the TCR ensure a productive association of the coreceptor. The alpha-chain connecting peptide motif (alpha-CPM) is a highly conserved sequence(More)
The fate and functional activity of T lymphocytes depend largely on the precise timing of gene expression and protein production. However, it is clear that post-translational modification of proteins affects their functional properties. Although modifications such as phosphorylation have been intensely studied by immunologists, less attention has been paid(More)
Following infection, naïve CD8+ T cells bearing pathogen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) differentiate into a mixed population of short-lived effector and long-lived memory T cells to mediate an adaptive immune response. How the TCR regulates memory T cell development has remained elusive. Using a mutant TCR transgenic model, we found that point mutations(More)