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Impaired HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env function has been described in elite controllers (EC) who spontaneously suppress plasma viremia to < 50 RNA copies/mL; however, activity of the accessory protein Nef remains incompletely characterized. We examined the ability of 91 Nef clones, isolated from plasma of 45 EC and 46 chronic progressors (CP), to down-regulate(More)
Murine models indicate that interleukin-10 (IL-10) can suppress viral clearance, and interventional blockade of IL-10 activity has been proposed to enhance immunity in chronic viral infections. Increased IL-10 levels have been observed during HIV infection and IL-10 blockade has been shown to enhance T-cell function in some HIV-infected subjects. However,(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the extensive genetic diversity of HIV-1, viral evolution in response to immune selective pressures follows broadly predictable mutational patterns. Sites and pathways of Human Leukocyte-Antigen (HLA)-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 have been identified through the analysis of population-level data, but the full extent of immune escape(More)
Despite reports of viral genetic defects in persons who control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of antiviral therapy, the extent to which such defects contribute to the long-term containment of viremia is not known. Most previous studies examining for such defects have involved small numbers of subjects, primarily focused on(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T cells in early infection are associated with the dramatic decline of peak viremia, whereas their antiviral activity in chronic infection is less apparent. The functional properties accounting for the antiviral activity of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells during early infection are unclear. Using(More)
The mechanisms underlying HIV-1 control by protective HLA class I alleles are not fully understood and could involve selection of escape mutations in functionally important Gag epitopes resulting in fitness costs. This study was undertaken to investigate, at the population level, the impact of HLA-mediated immune pressure in Gag on viral fitness and its(More)
HIV/HCV coinfection leads to accelerated hepatic fibrosis progression, with higher rates of cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver death than does HCV mono-infection. However, the profibrogenic role of HIV on hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) has not been fully clarified. We hypothesized that HIV, HCV induce liver fibrosis through altered regulation(More)
BACKGROUND The sequences of wild-isolate strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) are characterized by low GC content and suboptimal codon usage. Codon optimization of DNA vectors can enhance protein expression both by enhancing translational efficiency, and by altering RNA stability and export. Although gag codon optimization is widely used in DNA(More)
Defining the antiviral efficacy of CD8 T cells is important for immunogen design, and yet most current assays do not measure the ability of responses to neutralize infectious virus. Here we show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clones and cell lines derived from infected persons and targeting diverse epitopes(More)
CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune responses to HIV contribute to viral control in vivo. Epitopes encoded by alternative reading frame (ARF) peptides may be targeted by CTLs as well, but their frequency and in vivo relevance are unknown. Using host genetic (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]) and plasma viral sequence information from 765(More)