Mark A Brockman

Learn More
In progressive viral infection, antiviral T cell function is impaired by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report that the inhibitory immunoregulatory receptor CTLA-4 was selectively upregulated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD4(+) T cells but not CD8(+) T cells in all categories of HIV-infected subjects evaluated, with the exception of(More)
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-positive subjects are uncommon in their ability to control infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, late viral escape from a narrowly directed immunodominant Gag-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocyte (CTL) response has been linked to AIDS progression in these individuals. Identifying the mechanism of the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers (EC) maintain viremia below the limit of commercial assay detection (<50 RNA copies/ml) in the absence of antiviral therapy, but the mechanisms of control remain unclear. HLA-B57 and the closely related allele B*5801 are particularly associated with enhanced control and recognize the same(More)
Certain histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are associated with improved clinical outcomes for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the mechanisms for their effects remain undefined. An early CD8(+) T-cell escape mutation in the dominant HLA-B57-restricted Gag epitope TW10 (TSTLQEQIGW) has been shown to(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection increases hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related progression of hepatic fibrosis, increases HCV persistence, and decreases response rates to interferon-based anti-HCV therapy. It has remained unclear how HIV, a nonhepatotropic virus, accelerates the progression of liver disease by HCV. METHODS We(More)
Murine models indicate that interleukin-10 (IL-10) can suppress viral clearance, and interventional blockade of IL-10 activity has been proposed to enhance immunity in chronic viral infections. Increased IL-10 levels have been observed during HIV infection and IL-10 blockade has been shown to enhance T-cell function in some HIV-infected subjects. However,(More)
The human leukocyte antigens HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are associated with protection against progression of disease that results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet most people with alleles encoding HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are unable to control HIV-1. Here we found that HLA-B27-restricted CD8(+) T cells in people able to control(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the extensive genetic diversity of HIV-1, viral evolution in response to immune selective pressures follows broadly predictable mutational patterns. Sites and pathways of Human Leukocyte-Antigen (HLA)-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 have been identified through the analysis of population-level data, but the full extent of immune escape(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons who maintain plasma viral loads of <50 copies RNA/ml without treatment have been termed elite controllers (EC). Factors contributing to durable control of HIV in EC are unknown, but an HLA-dependent mechanism is suggested by overrepresentation of "protective" class I alleles, such as B*27, B*51,(More)
Mutations that allow escape from CD8 T-cell responses are common in HIV-1 and may attenuate pathogenesis by reducing viral fitness. While this has been demonstrated for individual cases, a systematic investigation of the consequence of HLA class I-mediated selection on HIV-1 in vitro replication capacity (RC) has not been undertaken. We examined this(More)