Learn More
Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural(More)
Agonistic interactions between animals are often settled by the use of repeated signals which advertise the resource-holding potential of the sender. According to the sequential assessment game this repetition increases the accuracy with which receivers may assess the signal, but under the cumulative assessment model the repeated performances accumulate to(More)
Animals titrate their behaviour against the level of risk and an individual's conspicuousness should influence decisions such as when to flee and for how long to hide. Conspicuousness will vary with variation in substrate colour. Since hermit crabs frequently change the shells they occupy, shell colour will also influence conspicuousness and to be aware of(More)
When social animals engage in inter-group contests, the outcome is determined by group sizes and individual masses, which together determine group resource-holding potential ('group RHP'). Individuals that perceive themselves as being in a group with high RHP may receive a motivational increase and increase their aggression levels. Alternatively,(More)
Contest theory predicts the evolution of a stable mixture of different strategies for fighting. Here, we investigate the possibility that stable between-individual differences in startle-response durations influence fighting ability or 'resource-holding potential' (RHP) in the beadlet sea anemone, Actinia equina. Both winners and losers showed significant(More)
Consistent individual variation in behaviour has been termed ‘animal personality’ and has been identified across a range of behavioural contexts including aggression, boldness in response to a threatening stimulus and exploration. When behaviours are correlated across multiple functional behavioural categories or ‘contexts’, ‘behavioural syndromes’ are said(More)
'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by(More)
Understanding the costs of signals used in fights is the key to understanding decisions made by contestants. Hermit crabs use shell rapping. This is a clearly defined agonistic signal, which can be quantified in temporal terms and in the power of the key shell-rapping signal component. We examine the relationship between the power expended by attacking(More)
In China, the panda emerged both as a " national treasure " and political image, for the communists. As the animal had no links with imperial China it provided a potent symbol of a new China, Nicholls writes. And in 1961, it was chosen as the symbol of the now Worldwide Fund for Nature. " It looks great, it's endangered, and prints well in black and white,(More)