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Given its significant role in the maintenance of genomic stability, histone methylation has been postulated to regulate DNA repair. Histone methylation mediates localization of 53BP1 to a DNA double-strand break (DSB) during homologous recombination repair, but a role in DSB repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) has not been defined. By screening for(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), composed of Ku70, Ku80, and the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), is involved in repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Certain proteins involved in NHEJ are also involved in DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). To test the effects of DNA-PKcs on DSB-induced HR, we integrated neo(More)
The highly conserved Rad51 protein plays an essential role in repairing DNA damage through homologous recombination. In vertebrates, five Rad51 paralogs (Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3) are expressed in mitotically growing cells and are thought to play mediating roles in homologous recombination, although their precise functions remain unclear.(More)
For cells on the path to carcinogenesis, the key to unlimited growth potential lies in overcoming the steady loss of telomeric sequence commonly referred to as the 'end-replication problem' that occurs with each cell division. Most human tumors have reactivated telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that directs RNA-templated addition of telomeric(More)
In mammalian cells, chromosomal double-strand breaks are efficiently repaired, yet little is known about the relative contributions of homologous recombination and illegitimate recombination in the repair process. In this study, we used a loss-of-function assay to assess the repair of double-strand breaks by homologous and illegitimate recombination. We(More)
The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27(More)
The irs1 and irs1SF hamster cell lines are mutated for the XRCC2 and XRCC3 genes, respectively. Both show heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation and particularly to the DNA cross-linking chemical mitomycin C (MMC). Frequencies of spontaneous chromosomal aberration have previously been reported to be higher in these two cell lines than in parental,(More)
XRCC3 was originally identified as a human gene able to complement the DNA damage sensitivity, chromosomal instability and impaired growth of the mutant hamster cell line irs1SF. More recently, it has been cloned, sequenced and found to bear sequence homology to the highly conserved eukaryotic repair and recombination gene RAD51. The phenotype of irs1SF and(More)
In somatic mammalian cells, homologous recombination is a rare event. To study the effects of chromosomal breaks on frequency of homologous recombination, site-specific endonucleases were introduced into human cells by electroporation. Cell lines with a partial duplication within the HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) gene were created through(More)
XRCC3 is a RAD51 paralog that functions in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). XRCC3 mutation causes severe chromosome instability. We find that XRCC3 mutant cells display radically altered HR product spectra, with increased gene conversion tract lengths, increased frequencies of discontinuous tracts, and frequent(More)