Mark A. Bernard

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The EXT family of putative tumor suppressor genes affect endochondral bone growth, and mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 genes cause the autosomal dominant disorder Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of these genes plays a role in the development of exostoses and chondrosarcomas. In this study, we characterized EXT genes in 11(More)
The EXT genes are a group of putative tumor suppressor genes that previously have been shown to participate in the development of hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), HME-associated and isolated chondrosarcomas. Two HME disease genes, EXT1 and EXT2, have been identified and are expressed ubiquitously. However, the only known effect of mutations in the EXT(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether HIV-1 produces microRNAs and elucidate whether these miRNAs can induce inflammatory response in macrophages (independent of the conventional miRNA function in RNA interference) leading to chronic immune activation. METHODS Using sensitive quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and sequencing, we detected novel HIV-derived miRNAs in the(More)
PURPOSE The goals in this study were several-fold. First, to optimize the in vivo phage display methodology by incorporating phage pharmacokinetic properties, to isolate peptides that target the brain microvasculature, and then to build focused libraries to obtain structure activity relationship information in vivo to identify the optimal targeting motif.(More)
Even though combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improves patient survival, they remain at a higher risk of being afflicted with non-infectious complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is linked to persistent inflammation and chronic immune activation. In this study, we assessed whether this complication is(More)
Mechanistic studies of RNA processing in the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) have been hindered by lack of methods for continuous monitoring of enzymatic activity. "Quencherless" fluorogenic substrates of RNAi enzymes enable continuous monitoring of enzymatic reactions for detailed kinetics studies. Recombinant RISC enzymes cleave the fluorogenic(More)
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