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Environmental hypercapnia induces a respiratory acidosis that is usually compensated within 24-96 h in freshwater fish. Water ionic composition has a large influence on both the rate and degree of pH recovery during hypercapnia. Waters of the Amazon are characteristically dilute in ions, which may have consequences for acid-base regulation during(More)
Our goal was to compare the internal physiological responses to acid challenge in an acidophilic tropical teleost endemic to dilute low-pH waters with those in nonacidophilic temperate species such as salmonids, which have been the subjects of most previous investigations. The Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), which migrates between circumneutral(More)
Stenohaline freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon spp.) are endemic to the very dilute (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca2(+) <or=30 micromol L(-1)), often acidic blackwaters of the Rio Negro despite gill Na(+) and Cl(-) transport characteristics that appear unfavorable (high K(m), low J(max)). We evaluated the possible protective role of blackwater itself, which is rich in(More)
This study describes the expression patterns of P-type Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and V-type H(+)-ATPase in the larval and adult forms of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and provides insight into their relative importance in ion transport function of key osmoregulatory organs. RT-PCR assays indicate that, at the level of the gene, both ATPases are expressed in all of the(More)
Stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae are the only stenohaline freshwater elasmobranchs. Potomotrygon sp. collected from the ion-poor blackwaters ([Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and [Ca(2+)]=10-30 micro mol l(-1), pH 6.1) of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil, were ammoniotelic (91% ammonia-N, 9% urea-N excretion) and exhibited blood chemistry (Na(+), Cl(-), urea,(More)
The scale-less carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) inhabits Lake Qinghai located on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (elevation, 3200 m) in western China. The lake waters are alkaline (pH 9.4, titratable alkalinity=30 mmol l(-1)), Mg(2+)-rich (18.7 mmol l(-1)), Ca(2+)-poor (0.30 mmol l(-1)) and saline (9 per thousand ). These fish make annual spawning migrations into(More)
We examined the metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of the Amazonian cichlid, Astronotus ocellatus, to 20 h exposure to severe hypoxia (0.37 +/- 0.19 mg O(2)/l; 4.6% air saturation) or 8 h severe hypoxia followed by 12 h recovery in normoxic water. During 20 h exposure to hypoxia, white muscle [ATP] was maintained at normoxic levels primarily through a(More)
Sensitivity to acid water was assessed in three species of Amazonian fish that encounter naturally acidic blackwaters to differing degrees in the wild: tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), matrincha (Brycon erythropterum), and tamoatá (Hoplosternum littorale), in decreasing order of occurrence in blackwater. Fish were exposed to a graded reduction in water pH,(More)
We measured unidirectional ion fluxes of fish collected directly from the Rio Negro, an extremely dilute, acidic blackwater tributary of the Amazon. Kinetic analysis of Na(+) uptake revealed that most species had fairly similar J(max) values, ranging from 1,150 to 1,750 nmol g(-1) h(-1), while K(m) values varied to a greater extent. Three species had K(m)(More)
We examined the effects of acute low-pH exposure on ion balance (Na+, Cl-, K+) in several species of fish captured from the Rio Negro, a dilute, acidic tributary of the Amazon. At pH 5.5 (untreated Rio Negro water), the four Rio Negro species tested (piranha preta, Serrasalmus rhombeus; piranha branca, Serrasalmus cf. holandi; aracu, Leporinus fasciatus;(More)