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There is increasing interest in long-term plans that can adapt to changing situations under conditions of deep uncertainty. We argue that a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social objectives, but should be robust and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen) future conditions. Large numbers of papers dealing with(More)
1 Securing the supply and equitable allocation of fresh water to support human well-being while sustaining healthy, functioning ecosystems is one of the grand environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, particularly in light of accelerating stressors from climate change, population growth and economic development. Rehabilitation of ageing(More)
1. Introduction The world's river deltas are increasingly vulnerable due to pressures from climate change, relative sea level rise and population growth (Syvitski et al., 2009; Vö rö smarty, 2009). Therefore, densely populated deltas such as the Netherlands require well-designed water management for flood protection and for coping with varying water demands(More)
Keywords: Integrated assessment Metamodel Water management Uncertainty Climate change adaptation Rhine a b s t r a c t Exploring adaptation pathways is an emerging approach for supporting decision making under uncertain changing conditions. An adaptation pathway is a sequence of policy actions to reach specified objectives. To develop adaptation pathways,(More)
A highly uncertain future due to changes in climate, technology and socio-economics has led to the realisation that identification of “best-guess” future conditions might no longer be appropriate. Instead, multiple plausible futures need to be considered, which requires (i) uncertainties to be described with the aid of scenarios that represent coherent(More)
To implement or continue water management strategies social support is needed. Social support highly depends on people's perspectives on water. However, these perspectives are not static and may change over time leading to changes in social support for strategies. Therefore, sustainable water management strategies should be robust. Robust strategies are(More)
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