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It is well known that vertical integration can change an upstream produc-er's incentive to supply the integrated …rm's downstream rivals. However, it has not been noticed that vertical integration also changes these rivals' incentives to choose suppliers. This paper develops an equilibrium theory of vertical merger that incorporates strategic behaviors in… (More)
20742 <email@example.com>. For helpful comments and suggestions, we would like to thank various seminar participants, anonymous referee. We alone are responsible for the views expressed in this paper. Abstract: The No Surcharge Rule (NSR) precludes merchants from charging higher prices to consumers who pay by card instead of other means ('cash'). We… (More)
These guidelines provide scientific information for policy development by state health departments considering appropriate use of newborn screening specimens after screening tests are finished. Information was collected, debated, and formulated into a policy statement by the Newborn Screening Committee of the Council of Regional Networks for Genetic… (More)
Served as the senior economist responsible for antitrust, regulated industries, and other industrial organization matters. Work included: Telecommunications Act of 1996, competition in international satellite services, competition in the electric utility industry, reforming the patent and trademark office, intellectual property rights, international trade… (More)
(on leave). The views in this paper do not purport to represent those of any United States government agency. I have learned a lot from discussions with Wynns and many others. I wish I could blame them for any errors, but unfortunately must take full responsibility.
We alone are responsible, however, for the views expressed in this paper.
Quantity " forcing " refers to pricing schemes that reward a buyer for purchasing some threshold quantity from a firm. When there are significant scale economies and buyers are unable to coordinate, economic theory shows that a firm can profitably use quantity forcing to exclude rivals, reducing overall welfare and harming some buyers. Inducements to reach… (More)
This paper analyzes the welfare e¤ects of monopoly di¤erential pricing in the important but largely neglected case where marginal costs of service di¤er across consumer groups. Compared to uniform pricing, cost-based di¤erential pricing generally raises total welfare. Although total output may fall or even its allocation across consumer groups may worsen,… (More)