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We report three-dimensional (3D) microscopy with nearly isotropic resolution in the lambda/5-lambda/10 range. Our approach combines 4PI-confocal two-photon fluorescence microscopy with image restoration. The 3D resolution is demonstrated with densely clustered beads as well as with F-actin fibers in mouse fibroblast cells. A comparison with unrestored(More)
We examined the fluorescence spectral properties of the DNA stains DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, hydrochloride) and Hoechst 33342 (bis-benzimide, or 2,5'-bi'1H-benzimidazole2'-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-methyl-1-piperazi nyl)) with two-photon (2h nu) and three-photon (3h nu) excitation using femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser from 830 to 885 nm.(More)
By combining the wavefronts produced by two high-aperture lenses, two-photon 4Pi-confocal microscopy allows three-dimensional imaging of transparent biological specimens with axial resolution in the 100-140-nm range. We reveal the imaging properties of a two-photon 4Pi-confocal microscope as applied to a fixed cell. We demonstrate that a fast, linear point(More)
The combination of two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy with image restoration leads to a fundamental improvement of three-dimensional resolution in the imaging of transparent, fluorescent specimens. The improvement is exemplified by randomly dispersed fluorescent beads and with actin filaments in a mouse fibroblast cell. For an(More)
Monomolecular films of polymerized dimethyl-bis[pentaco-sadiinoic-oxyethyl] ammonium bromide (EDIPAB) provide one-and two-photon excited fluorescence that is sufficiently high to quantify the axial resolution of 3-D fluorescence microscopes. When scanned along the optical axis, the fluorescence of these layers is bright enough to allow online observation of(More)
We measure the point-spread function in the two main configurations of 4Pi confocal microscopy as well as in the traditional confocal arrangement and derive the optical transfer functions from the experimental data. The optical transfer functions are in good agreement with their theoretical counterparts. We find a 3.5- to 5-fold increased axial bandwidth of(More)
Replacement of glycine residue 232 with aspartate in the KdpA subunit of the K(+)-translocating KdpFABC complex of Escherichia coli leads to a transport complex that has reduced affinity for K(+) and has lost the ability to discriminate Rb(+) ions (, J. Biol. Chem. 270:6678-6685). This glycine residue is the first in a highly conserved GGG motif that was(More)
The endpoint region of the P-spectrum of tritium was remeasured by an electrostatic spectrometer with magnetic guiding field. It enabled the search for a rest mass of the electron-antineutrino with improved precision. The result is in: =-39 f 34,t,t f lSsysf (e ~ / c ~) ~ , from which an upper limit of m, < 7.2 ev/c2 may be derived. The experiment yields(More)
We describe the three-dimensional (3-D) image formation and data acquisition in a stage scanning 4Pi confocal fluorescence microscope with the use of two-photon excitation. The 3-D point-spread functions of the 4Pi confocal and regular confocal microscope are measured and compared. Particular emphasis is given to the data acquisition procedure. 4Pi confocal(More)