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Determining 3D intermediate structures during the biological action of proteins in real time under ambient conditions is essential for understanding how proteins function. Here we use time-resolved Laue crystallography to extract short-lived intermediate structures and thereby unveil signal transduction in the blue light photoreceptor photoactive yellow(More)
A time-resolved Laue X-ray diffraction technique has been used to explore protein relaxation and ligand migration at room temperature following photolysis of a single crystal of carbon monoxymyoglobin. The CO ligand is photodissociated by a 7.5 ns laser pulse, and the subsequent structural changes are probed by 150 ps or 1 micros X-ray pulses at 14(More)
We determine the number of authentic reaction intermediates in the later stages of the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein at room temperature, their atomic structures, and a consistent set of chemical kinetic mechanisms, by analysis of a set of time-dependent difference electron density maps spanning the time range from 5 micros to 100 ms. The(More)
Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a technique commonly used in the analysis of spectroscopic data that both acts as a noise filter and reduces the dimensionality of subsequent least-squares fits. To establish the applicability of SVD to crystallographic data, we applied SVD to calculated difference Fourier maps simulating those to be obtained in a(More)
We have determined eight X-ray structures of myoglobin mutant L29W at various experimental conditions. In addition, infrared spectroscopic experiments are presented, which are discussed in the light of the X-ray structures. Two distinct conformations of the CO-ligated protein were identified, giving rise to two stretching bands of heme-bound CO. If L29W(More)
By using time-resolved x-ray crystallography at room temperature, structural relaxations and ligand migration were examined in myoglobin (Mb) mutant L29W from nanoseconds to seconds after photodissociation of carbon monoxide (CO) from the heme iron by nanosecond laser pulses. The data were analyzed in terms of transient kinetics by fitting trial functions(More)
Singular value decomposition (SVD) separates time-dependent crystallographic data into time-independent and time-dependent components. Procedures for the effective application of SVD to time-resolved macromolecular crystallographic data have yet to be explored systematically. Here, the applicability of SVD to experimental crystallographic data is tested by(More)
Serial femtosecond crystallography using ultrashort pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enables studies of the light-triggered dynamics of biomolecules. We used microcrystals of photoactive yellow protein (a bacterial blue light photoreceptor) as a model system and obtained high-resolution, time-resolved difference electron density maps of(More)
New techniques in fast time-resolved X-ray crystallography provide a different approach to understanding the structural basis of protein function. Two biological systems have been studied as part of the refinement of these techniques, and have actually spurred new ideas in time-resolved structural studies. The dissociation of carbon monoxide from(More)
In the bacterial photoreceptor photoactive yellow protein (PYP), absorption of blue light by its chromophore leads to a conformational change in the protein associated with differential signaling activity, as it executes a reversible photocycle. Time-resolved Laue crystallography allows structural snapshots (as short as 150 ps) of high crystallographic(More)