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The objective of this paper is to model determinants of intraurban variation in ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Toronto, Canada, with a land use regression (LUR) model. Although researchers have conducted similar studies in Europe, this work represents the first attempt in a North American setting to characterize variation in traffic(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic. OBJECTIVES In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. METHODS We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided(More)
Increasing evidence links air pollution to the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], fine particulate matter [PM₂.₅], and ozone [O₃]) in a population of susceptible subjects in Toronto. Local (NO₂)(More)
Six rats were trained to find a previously missing target or ‘jackpot’ object in a square array of four identical or different objects (the test segment of a trial) after first visiting and collecting sunflower seeds from under the other three objects (the study segment of a trial). During training, objects’ local positions within the array and their global(More)
This study investigated rats' preferences for using non-spatial and spatial cues in a missing-object recognition task. Rats were trained to find a sunflower seed under any one of four previously missing adjacent objects, the test array of a trial, after having found seeds under three of them in the 'study' array of that trial. On some trials the study and(More)
Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and(More)
The eddy-covariance (EC) micro-meteorological technique and the ecology-based biometric methods (BM) are the primary methodologies to quantify CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) and its two components, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Here we show that EC and BM provide different(More)
This study aimed to develop growth centiles at different gestational weeks for fetal biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length and head circumference in a Pakistani cohort. Data were collected at a tertiary referral hospital from pregnant women at gestational ages 13-40 weeks referred for obstetric ultrasound as a part of routine antenatal(More)
Traumatic brain injury can cause persistent challenges including problems with learning and memory. Previous studies suggest that the activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor after a traumatic brain injury could be beneficial. We tested the hypothesis that posttraumatic brain injury administration of a cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist can rescue deficits in(More)
Pentobarbital acts as a mixed inhibitor of net D-glucose exit, as monitored photometrically from human red cells. At 30 degrees C the Ki of pentobarbital for inhibition of Vmax of zero-trans net glucose exit is 2.16+/-0.14 mM; the affinity of the external site of the transporter for D-glucose is also reduced to 50% of control by 1. 66+/-0.06 mM(More)