Marita Wagner

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Transitions between distinct kinetic states of an ion channel are described by a Markov process. Hidden Markov models (HMM) have been successfully applied in the analysis of single ion channel recordings with a small signal-to-noise ratio. However, we have recently shown that the anti-aliasing low-pass filter misleads parameter estimation. Here, we show for(More)
Perception of size is assessed by having observers adjust a comparison target at a fixed distance to match the size of a standard located at different distances. Results depend on instructions, target orientation, and available stimulus cues. A mathematical theory assumes that the brain performs an inverse transformation on the proximal information(More)
Modification of Restle's theory (1970) explains the moon illusion and related phenomena on the basis of three principles: (1) The apparent sizes of objects are their perceived visual angles. (2) The apparent size of the moon is determined by the ratio of the angular extent of the moon relative to the extents subtended by objects composing the surrounding(More)
The most common explanations of the moon illusion assume that the moon is seen at a specific distance in the sky, which is perceived as a definite surface. A decrease in the apparent distance to the sky with increasing elevation presumably leads to a corresponding decrease in apparent size. In Experiment 1 observers (N = 24) gave magnitude estimates of the(More)
An important task in the application of Markov models to the analysis of ion channel data is the determination of the correct gating scheme of the ion channel under investigation. Some prior knowledge from other experiments can reduce significantly the number of possible models. If these models are standard statistical procedures nested like likelihood(More)
Aggregated Markov models are a widely used tool to model patch clamp data measured from single ion channels. These channels must obey the principle of detailed balance in thermodynamic equilibrium; otherwise, the channel is driven by an external source of energy. We investigate the power of a likelihood ratio test for detailed balance for a number of data(More)
The model system propranolol hydrochloride (PROP-HCl)/Amberlite™ was studied in terms of equilibrium concentrations and amount drug bound to the ion exchanger, and compared to the system potassium chloride (KCl)/Amberlite™. It was found that both the affinity and exchange capacity of Amberlite™ for PROP-H + ions is higher than for K +. Specific heat effects(More)