Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in… (More)
INTRODUCTION In early-life, the immature mucosal barrier allows contact between the gut microbiota and the developing immune system. Due to their strategic location and their ability to sample luminal antigen, dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the interaction of microbes and immune cells in the gut. Here, we investigated how two bacteria… (More)
In their recent commentary on our manuscript entitled " Morphologically Distinct Escherichia coli Bacteriophages Differ in Their Efficacy and Ability to Stimulate Cytokine Release In vitro, " Dufour et al. suggest that the level of cytokine response generated in our paper is due to remaining bacterial debris rather than true differences between individual… (More)
[This corrects the article on p. 437 in vol. 7, PMID: 27065990.].