Learn More
The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV) and Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer(More)
BACKGROUND Because the clinical course of human infections with hantaviruses can vary from subclinical to fatal, rapid and reliable detection of hantaviruses is essential. To date, the diagnosis of hantavirus infection is based mainly on serologic assays, and the detection of hantaviral RNA by the commonly used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR is difficult(More)
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, yet their life expectancy remains reduced compared with the general population. Most HIV-infected patients receiving cART have some persistent immune dysfunction characterized by chronic immune activation and premature aging of the immune(More)
A better understanding of immunity to influenza virus is needed to generate cross-protective vaccines. Engagement of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) Abs by NK cells leads to killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines. ADCC Abs may target more conserved influenza virus Ags compared with neutralizing Abs.(More)
Effective immunity to HIV is poorly understood. In particular, a role for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV is controversial. We hypothesized that significant pressure from HIV-specific ADCC would result in immune-escape variants. A series of ADCC epitopes in HIV-infected subjects to specific consensus strain HIV peptides(More)
The partial success of the RV144 trial re-energized the field of HIV vaccine research, which had stalled after vaccines based on neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T cells had failed to induce protection. A large post-vaccine research effort has focused attention on the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in the protection afforded by the RV144 vaccine.(More)
Antibodies with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity play an important role in protection against HIV-1 infection, but generating sufficient amounts of antibodies to study their protective efficacy is difficult. HIV-specific IgG can be easily and inexpensively produced in large quantities using bovine colostrum. We previously vaccinated(More)
Strategies to eliminate infectious HIV that persists despite present treatments and with the potential to cure HIV infection are of great interest. One patient seems to have been cured of HIV infection after receiving a bone marrow transplant with cells resistant to the virus, although this strategy is not viable for large numbers of infected people.(More)
FcRγ is an ITAM-containing adaptor required for CD16 signaling and function in NK cells. We have previously shown that NK cells from HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have decreased FcRγ expression, but the factors causing this are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cART-naive viremic patients (ART(-)),(More)
Most patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who remain CD4(+) T-cell deficient on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit marked immune activation. As CD4(+) T-cell activation may be mediated by microbial translocation or interferon-alpha (IFN-α), we examined these factors in HIV patients with good or poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery on long-term ART.(More)