Marit Kramski

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Effective immunity to HIV is poorly understood. In particular, a role for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV is controversial. We hypothesized that significant pressure from HIV-specific ADCC would result in immune-escape variants. A series of ADCC epitopes in HIV-infected subjects to specific consensus strain HIV peptides(More)
BACKGROUND Because the clinical course of human infections with hantaviruses can vary from subclinical to fatal, rapid and reliable detection of hantaviruses is essential. To date, the diagnosis of hantavirus infection is based mainly on serologic assays, and the detection of hantaviral RNA by the commonly used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR is difficult(More)
A better understanding of immunity to influenza virus is needed to generate cross-protective vaccines. Engagement of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) Abs by NK cells leads to killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines. ADCC Abs may target more conserved influenza virus Ags compared with neutralizing Abs.(More)
Antibodies (Abs) that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity against HIV-1 are of major interest. A widely used method to measure ADCC Abs is the rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay. Antibody-dependent killing of a labelled target cell line by PBMC is assessed by loss of intracellular CFSE(More)
BACKGROUND Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a purified pool of human antibodies from thousands of donors that is used to prevent or treat primary immune deficiency, several infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. The antibodies that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against heterologous influenza strains may be present in(More)
The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV) and Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer(More)
BACKGROUND Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively controls human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but does not eliminate HIV, and lifelong treatment is therefore required. HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses decline following cART initiation. Alterations in other HIV-specific immune responses that may assist in(More)
Zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) can induce severe disease in man and the virus has potential for use in bioterrorism. New vaccines and therapeutics against OPV infections must be tested in animal models. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical course and pathology of a new OPV isolate, calpox virus, which is infectious in marmosets. Infection(More)
Antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADP) is a potentially important immune mechanism to clear HIV. How HIV-specific ADP responses mature during HIV infection or in response to vaccinations administered, including the partially successful RV144 HIV vaccine, is not known. We established a modified ADP assay to measure internalisation of HIV antibody(More)
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, yet their life expectancy remains reduced compared with the general population. Most HIV-infected patients receiving cART have some persistent immune dysfunction characterized by chronic immune activation and premature aging of the immune(More)