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The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV) and Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer(More)
Antibodies (Abs) that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity against HIV-1 are of major interest. A widely used method to measure ADCC Abs is the rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay. Antibody-dependent killing of a labelled target cell line by PBMC is assessed by loss of intracellular CFSE(More)
BACKGROUND Because the clinical course of human infections with hantaviruses can vary from subclinical to fatal, rapid and reliable detection of hantaviruses is essential. To date, the diagnosis of hantavirus infection is based mainly on serologic assays, and the detection of hantaviral RNA by the commonly used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR is difficult(More)
A better understanding of immunity to influenza virus is needed to generate cross-protective vaccines. Engagement of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) Abs by NK cells leads to killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines. ADCC Abs may target more conserved influenza virus Ags compared with neutralizing Abs.(More)
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, yet their life expectancy remains reduced compared with the general population. Most HIV-infected patients receiving cART have some persistent immune dysfunction characterized by chronic immune activation and premature aging of the immune(More)
Effective immunity to HIV is poorly understood. In particular, a role for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV is controversial. We hypothesized that significant pressure from HIV-specific ADCC would result in immune-escape variants. A series of ADCC epitopes in HIV-infected subjects to specific consensus strain HIV peptides(More)
Antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADP) is a potentially important immune mechanism to clear HIV. How HIV-specific ADP responses mature during HIV infection or in response to vaccinations administered, including the partially successful RV144 HIV vaccine, is not known. We established a modified ADP assay to measure internalisation of HIV antibody(More)
FcRγ is an ITAM-containing adaptor required for CD16 signaling and function in NK cells. We have previously shown that NK cells from HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have decreased FcRγ expression, but the factors causing this are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cART-naive viremic patients (ART(-)),(More)
The partial success of the RV144 trial re-energized the field of HIV vaccine research, which had stalled after vaccines based on neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T cells had failed to induce protection. A large post-vaccine research effort has focused attention on the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in the protection afforded by the RV144 vaccine.(More)
Strategies to eliminate infectious HIV that persists despite present treatments and with the potential to cure HIV infection are of great interest. One patient seems to have been cured of HIV infection after receiving a bone marrow transplant with cells resistant to the virus, although this strategy is not viable for large numbers of infected people.(More)