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Oscillations of gene expression and physiological activity in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons result from autoregulatory feedback loops of circadian clock gene transcription factors. In the present experiment, we have determined the pattern of PERIOD1 (PER1), PERIOD2 (PER2), and CLOCK expression within neuroendocrine dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons(More)
Melanopsin has been implicated in the mammalian photoentrainment by blue light. This photopigment, which maximally absorbs light at wavelengths between 470 and 480 nm depending on the species, is found in the retina of all classes of vertebrates so far studied. In mammals, melanopsin activation triggers a signaling pathway which resets the circadian clock(More)
Cervical stimulation induces two daily rhythmic prolactin surges, nocturnal and diurnal, which persist for several days. We have shown that a bolus injection of oxytocin initiates a similar prolactin rhythm, which persists despite low levels of oxytocin after injection. This suggests that oxytocin may trigger the cervical stimulation-induced rhythmic(More)
Since locus coeruleus (LC) lesion blocks preovulatory prolactin surge, the aim of this study was to determine if this lesion would also block prolactin surges induced by steroids in ovariectomized rats and would modify basal prolactin secretion. To determine the time of the steroid-induced prolactin surges, ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol (OVE)(More)
In female rats, estradiol (E(2)) and suckling induce prolactin (PRL) secretion. This involves inhibition of hypothalamic dopaminergic tone and stimulation by a PRL-releasing hormone, possibly oxytocin (OT). Infusing an OT antagonist (OTA) i.v., we evaluated the role of OT on suckling- and E(2)-induced PRL secretion. Three days after parturition at 0900 h,(More)
In female rats, stimulation of the uterine cervix during mating induces two daily surges of prolactin. Inhibition of hypothalamic dopamine release and stimulation of oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are required for prolactin secretion. We aim to better understand how stimulation of the uterine cervix is translated into two daily(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Cervical stimulation induces a circadian rhythm of prolactin secretion and antiphase dopamine release. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls this rhythm, and we propose that it does so through clock gene expression within the SCN. METHODS To test this hypothesis, serial blood samples were taken from animals injected with an antisense(More)
Stress has been proposed to stimulate prolactin release if its prestress levels are low, or to inhibit it if they are elevated, but the role of ovarian-steroid fluctuations in the prolactin stress response is not yet clearly understood. Because the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus has been implicated in stress responses and generation of prolactin(More)
Internal temporal organisation properly synchronised to the environment is crucial for health maintenance. This organisation is provided at the cellular level by the molecular clock, a macromolecular transcription-based oscillator formed by the clock and the clock-controlled genes that is present in both central and peripheral tissues. In mammals,(More)
The nature of the circadian signal from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) required for prolactin (PRL) surges is unknown. Because the SCN neuronal circadian rhythm is determined by a feedback loop of Period (Per) 1, Per2, and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) gene expressions, we investigated the effect of SCN rhythmicity on PRL surges by(More)