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OBJECTIVES Death from severe sepsis and septic shock is common, and researchers have explored whether antibodies to the endotoxins in some bacteria reduces mortality. This review summarises the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in patients with bacterial sepsis or septic shock on mortality, bacteriological failure rates, and duration of stay in(More)
BACKGROUND Mortality from sepsis and septic shock remains high. Results of trials on intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) as adjunctive therapy for sepsis have been conflicting. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was originally published in 1999 and updated in 2002 and 2010. OBJECTIVES To estimate the effects of IVIG as adjunctive therapy in(More)
Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year(More)
BACKGROUND In many parts of Asia, the inaccessibility and high cost of diagnostic tests have hampered the study of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by atypical respiratory pathogens. OBJECTIVE This surveillance study examined the frequency of infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila in 1756(More)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent infectious diseases in the general population. They cause a substantial financial burden in the community and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in hospitals. With increased rates of antimicrobial resistance, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, treatment of(More)
INTRODUCTION Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are major causes of hospital admission and mortality in children. METHODS AND OUTCOMES We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of supportive treatments for dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children? We(More)
M ultidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is on the increase, with several Eastern European countries having a prevalence of more than ten percent [1]. This resistance means that patients may not be cured with standard regimens even if they adhere well to treatment. An MDR-TB programme requires advanced medical care, infection control measures,(More)
BACKGROUND Reminder systems and late patient tracers as strategies to improve patients' adherence to tuberculosis screening, diagnosis, and treatment are used in some countries, but their effectiveness has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of reminder systems and late patient tracers on completion of(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to assess the value for money of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines as part of the immunization program in a lower-middle income country, the Philippines, which is not eligible for GAVI support and lower vaccine prices. It also includes the newest clinical evidence evaluating the efficacy of PCV10, which is(More)
BACKGROUND People with active tuberculosis (TB) require six months of treatment. Some people find it difficult to complete treatment, and there are several approaches to help ensure completion. One such system relies on reminders, where the health system prompts patients to attend for appointments on time, or re-engages people who have missed or defaulted(More)