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In 2003, the QUADAS tool for systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies was developed. Experience, anecdotal reports, and feedback suggested areas for improvement; therefore, QUADAS-2 was developed. This tool comprises 4 domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, and flow and timing. Each domain is assessed in terms of risk of bias,(More)
BACKGROUND Thyroid disease has been suggested to be associated with vitiligo. However, the outcomes of prevalence studies on thyroid disease in vitiligo vary widely. OBJECTIVES To summarize and critically appraise current evidence of the prevalence of thyroid diseases in vitiligo. METHODS A systematic review was performed searching the electronic(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common life-threatening opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromized patients. A test for IA needs to be not too invasive and not too big a burden for the already weakened patient. The serum galactomannan ELISA seems to have potential for both requirements. OBJECTIVES To obtain summary estimates of(More)
OBJECTIVE Currently, there is no consensus on the definition of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG; protracted vomiting in pregnancy) and no single widely used set of diagnostic criteria for HG. The various definitions rely on symptoms, sometimes in combination with laboratory tests. Through a systematic review, we aimed to summarize available evidence on the(More)
BACKGROUND Interpretation of serological assays in Lyme borreliosis requires an understanding of the clinical indications and the limitations of the currently available tests. We therefore systematically reviewed the accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. METHODS We searched EMBASE en MEDLINE and contacted experts.(More)
More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the(More)
BACKGROUND Timely diagnosis of influenza can help clinical management. PURPOSE To examine the accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) in adults and children with influenza-like illness and evaluate factors associated with higher accuracy. DATA SOURCES PubMed and EMBASE through December 2011; BIOSIS and Web of Science through March 2010; and(More)
BACKGROUND   Demonstration of adequate reliability and validity is sufficient for concluding that an instrument is applicable for descriptive and predictive purposes, but before we can confidently use an outcome measure in clinical trials, the responsiveness (synonymous with sensitivity to change) and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) should be(More)
BACKGROUND Microbial cultures for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis suffer from low sensitivity and reporting delay. Advances in molecular microbiology have fostered new molecular assays that are rapid and may improve neonatal outcomes. OBJECTIVES We assessed whether molecular assays have sufficient sensitivity (>0.98) and specificity (>0.95) to replace(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies and systematic reviews have reported results that indicate that sensitivity and specificity may vary with prevalence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING We identify and explore mechanisms that may be responsible for sensitivity and specificity varying with prevalence and illustrate them with examples from the literature. RESULTS(More)