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In 2003, the QUADAS tool for systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies was developed. Experience, anecdotal reports, and feedback suggested areas for improvement; therefore, QUADAS-2 was developed. This tool comprises 4 domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, and flow and timing. Each domain is assessed in terms of risk of bias,(More)
In 1996, shortly after the founding of The Cochrane Collaboration, leading figures in test evaluation research established a Methods Group to focus on the relatively new and rapidly evolving methods for the systematic review of studies of diagnostic tests. Seven years later, the Collaboration decided it was time to develop a publication format and(More)
BACKGROUND In drug development, a 4-phase hierarchical model for the clinical evaluation of new pharmaceuticals is well known. Several comparable phased evaluation schemes have been proposed for medical tests. PURPOSE To perform a systematic search of the literature, a synthesis, and a critical review of phased evaluation schemes for medical tests. DATA(More)
BACKGROUND Severe leptospirosis features bleeding and multi-organ failure, leading to shock and death. Currently it is assumed that both exaggerated inflammation and immune suppression contribute to mortality in sepsis. Indeed, several proinflammatory cytokines are reported to be induced during leptospirosis. Toll-like receptors, which play an important(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the accuracy of predictive tests for pre-eclampsia and the effectiveness of preventative interventions for pre-eclampsia. Also to assess the cost-effectiveness of strategies (test-intervention combinations) to predict and prevent pre-eclampsia. DATA SOURCES Major electronic databases were searched to January 2005 at least. (More)
BACKGROUND Optimal cutoff values for tests results involving continuous variables are often derived in a data-driven way. This approach, however, may lead to overly optimistic measures of diagnostic accuracy. We evaluated the magnitude of the bias in sensitivity and specificity associated with data-driven selection of cutoff values and examined potential(More)
BACKGROUND During pregnancy, malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax is related to adverse maternal health and poor birth outcomes. Diagnosis of malaria, during pregnancy, is complicated by the absence or low parasite densities in peripheral blood. Diagnostic methods, other than microscopy, are needed for detection of placental(More)
Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially(More)
OBJECTIVE How long clinicians should wait before considering an antipsychotic ineffective and changing treatment in schizophrenia is an unresolved clinical question. Guidelines differ substantially in this regard. The authors conducted a diagnostic test meta-analysis using mostly individual patient data to assess whether lack of improvement at week 2(More)
BACKGROUND The interest in prognostic reviews is increasing, but to properly review existing evidence an accurate search filer for finding prediction research is needed. The aim of this paper was to validate and update two previously introduced search filters for finding prediction research in Medline: the Ingui filter and the Haynes Broad filter. (More)