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Patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity, but without mutations in AMT, GLDC or GCSH, the genes encoding its constituent proteins, constitute a clinical group which we call 'variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia'. We hypothesize that in some patients the aetiology involves genetic mutations that result in a(More)
Acetylation has recently emerged as an important mechanism for controlling a broad array of proteins mediating cellular adaptation to metabolic fuels. Acetylation is governed, in part, by SIRTs (sirtuins), class III NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in liver during fasting and aging. However, the role of acetylation or(More)
BACKGROUND Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH, encoded by ECHS1) catalyzes hydration of 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs to 3(S)-hydroxy-acyl-CoAs. SCEH has a broad substrate specificity and is believed to play an important role in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Recently, the first patients with SCEH deficiency(More)
Many tRNAs undergo tertiary folding transitions at temperatures well below the main thermally induced (hyperchromic) transition. Such transitions are essentially isochromic and isoenthalpic and display an absolute requirement for divalent cations; however, the nature of the structural transition is not known for any tRNA. Using a combination of transient(More)
The study of RNA structure using x-ray crystallography or NMR has yielded a wealth of detailed structural information; however, such approaches do not generally yield quantitative information regarding long-range flexibility in solution. To address this issue, we describe a solution-based method that is capable of characterizing the global flexibilities of(More)
A principal feature of the crystal structures of tRNAs is an L-shaped tertiary conformation in which the aminoacyl acceptor stem and the anticodon stem are approximately perpendicular. However, the anticodon-acceptor interstem angle has not been precisely quantified in solution for any tRNA. Such a determination would represent an important test of the(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial disease is often suspected in cases of severe epileptic encephalopathy especially when a complex movement disorder, liver involvement and progressive developmental regression are present. Although mutations in either mitochondrial DNA or POLG are often present, other nuclear defects in mitochondrial DNA replication and protein(More)
A novel rat model for a well-characterized human mitochondrial disease, mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome with associated deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) deficiency, is described. The rat model recapitulates the pathologic and biochemical signatures of the human disease. The application of electron paramagnetic (spin) resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to the(More)
Muscle, heart and liver were analyzed in a male subject who succumbed to HSD10 disease. Respiratory chain enzyme analysis and BN-PAGE showed reduced activities and assembly of complexes I, III, IV, and V. The mRNAs of all RNase P subunits were preserved in heart and overexpressed in muscle, but MRPP2 protein was severely decreased. RNase P upregulation(More)
Transfer RNAs possess highly conserved secondary structures, and crystallographic studies suggest a common, L-shaped tertiary conformation in which the anticodon and acceptor stems are disposed at approximately right angles to one another. However, many animal mitochondrial tRNAs possess unusual secondary structures, and little is known regarding their(More)