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An economic-engineering optimization model of California's major water supply system is presented. The model's development , calibration, limitations, and results are reviewed. The major methodological conclusions are that large-scale water resources optimization models driven by economic objective functions are both possible and practical; deterministic(More)
The ability of California's water supply system to adapt to long-term climatic and demographic changes is examined. Two climate warming and a historical climate scenario are examined with population and land use estimates for the year 2100 using a statewide economic-engineering optimization model of water supply management. Methodologically, the results of(More)
Economically optimal operational changes and adaptations for California's water supply system are examined for a dry form of climate warming (GFDL CM2.1 A2) with year 2050 water demands and land use. Economically adaptive water management for this climate scenario is compared to a similar scenario with the historical climate. The effects of population(More)
This paper explores the potential and limitations for Southern California water markets using an economic-engineering network flow optimization model, CALVIN. CALVIN is used to estimate how a market would affect overall Southern California water use, to preliminarily assess the economic benefit of more flexible water allocation policies, and to explore the(More)
This paper presents results of a large-scale economic-engineering optimization model of California's water supply system. The results of this 4-year effort illustrate the value of optimization modeling for providing integrated information needed to manage a complex multipurpose water system. This information includes economic benefits of flexible(More)
Nearly half the world's population lacks basic sanitation to protect their environment from human fecal contamination. Building a latrine is the first step on the sanitation ladder in developing countries where a majority of the population defecates in open or public areas. Public health programs to improve sanitation have consistently framed promotional(More)
BACKGROUND A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of(More)
[1] The potential and limitations of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater are explored for southern California's water supply system. An economic-engineering network flow optimization model, CALVIN, is used to analyze the economic and reliability benefits from different conjunctive use alternatives. Flexible management of additional conjunctive use(More)