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BACKGROUND A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of(More)
Nearly half the world's population lacks basic sanitation to protect their environment from human fecal contamination. Building a latrine is the first step on the sanitation ladder in developing countries where a majority of the population defecates in open or public areas. Public health programs to improve sanitation have consistently framed promotional(More)
An economic-engineering optimization model of California's major water supply system is presented. The model's development , calibration, limitations, and results are reviewed. The major methodological conclusions are that large-scale water resources optimization models driven by economic objective functions are both possible and practical; deterministic(More)
Economically optimal operational changes and adaptations for California's water supply system are examined for a dry form of climate warming (GFDL CM2.1 A2) with year 2050 water demands and land use. Economically adaptive water management for this climate scenario is compared to a similar scenario with the historical climate. The effects of population(More)
Household demand for improved sanitation in developing countries is an important social and behavioral process with implications for public health, sanitation policy and planning, and sanitation design and technology development. This paper develops a behavioral approach to assess household demand for improved sanitation in Ghana. Adoption decision stages(More)
Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of hypnotherapy on the first and second stages of labour in a large group of pregnant women. DESIGN A semi-prospective case control study in which women attending antenatal clinics were invited to undergo hypnotherapy. SUBJECTS One hundred twenty-six primigravid women with 300 age matched controls, and 136 parous women(More)
Microbial source tracking to distinguish between human, livestock and wildlife fecal pollution using molecular techniques is a rapidly evolving approach in many developed countries, but has not previously been applied on the African continent. DNA extracts from cow, donkey, and human fecal specimens and raw domestic sewage samples collected in Kenya were(More)