Marion W. Jenkins

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Nearly half the world's population lacks basic sanitation to protect their environment from human fecal contamination. Building a latrine is the first step on the sanitation ladder in developing countries where a majority of the population defecates in open or public areas. Public health programs to improve sanitation have consistently framed promotional(More)
An economic-engineering optimization model of California’s major water supply system is presented. The model’s development, calibration, limitations, and results are reviewed. The major methodological conclusions are that large-scale water resources optimization models driven by economic objective functions are both possible and practical; deterministic(More)
BACKGROUND A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of(More)
Household demand for improved sanitation in developing countries is an important social and behavioral process with implications for public health, sanitation policy and planning, and sanitation design and technology development. This paper develops a behavioral approach to assess household demand for improved sanitation in Ghana. Adoption decision stages(More)
Economically optimal operational changes and adaptations for California’s water supply system are examined for a dry form of climate warming (GFDL CM2.1 A2) with year 2050 water demands and land use. Economically adaptive water management for this climate scenario is compared to a similar scenario with the historical climate. The effects of population(More)
OBJECTIVE Measure effectiveness of intermittent slow sand filtration for reducing child diarrhoea among households using unimproved water sources in rural Kenya. METHODS A randomized controlled trail was conducted among populations meeting a high-risk profile for child diarrhoea from drinking river water in the River Njoro watershed. Intervention(More)
We evaluated the impacts of climate change on the productivity and health of a forest in the mixed-conifer region in California. We adapted an industry-standard planning tool to forecast 30-years of growth for forest stands under a changing climate. Four projections of future climate (two global climate models and two emission forecasts) were examined for(More)
A two-factor three-block experimental design was developed to permit rigorous evaluation and modeling of the main effects and interactions of sand size (d(10) of 0.17 and 0.52 mm) and hydraulic head (10, 20, and 30 cm) on removal of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria, MS2 bacteriophage virus, and turbidity, under two batch operating modes ('long' and 'short') in(More)
Microbial source tracking to distinguish between human, livestock and wildlife fecal pollution using molecular techniques is a rapidly evolving approach in many developed countries, but has not previously been applied on the African continent. DNA extracts from cow, donkey, and human fecal specimens and raw domestic sewage samples collected in Kenya were(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, especially among young children in low-income countries, and are associated with exposure to human excreta. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoeal diseases. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the(More)