Marion Macrae

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A nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in Scotland (July 2005-September 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. Sequence types(More)
The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Scottish beef cattle at abattoir was found to be greater during the cooler months [11.2% (95% CI, 8.4-13.9%)] compared to the warmer months [7.5% (95% CI, 5.4-9.6%)]; the reverse of seasonality of human infections. However, high shedding beef cattle (excreting 10(-4) g(-1)) appear to shed greater concentrations of(More)
Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were quantified and typed, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), from fecal samples collected from a mixed cattle and sheep farm during summer. Cattle had a significantly higher prevalence than sheep (21.9% [74/338] and 14.0% [30/214], respectively), but both decreased over time. There were no differences in the average(More)
An intensive study of 443 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from 2031 fecal samples excreted by animal sources including cattle, sheep, and pigs, a range of wild and domesticated avian species and pets is described. The prevalence found in the majority of animal sources ranged from 22% to 28% with poultry being highest at 41% and cats(More)
We report the prevalence, concentrations, and strain diversity of Escherichia coli O157 shed by sheep fed on root crops during a winter period in northeast Scotland. E. coli O157 was isolated on 6 farms from 14 studied during January to March 2005. The individual sheep prevalence was 5.8% and concentration excreted was <10(2) colony-forming units/g for all(More)
Between 2001 and 2006, the incidence of human Campylobacter infections decreased by 10 and 27% in Scotland and the Grampian region of Scotland, respectively. Contemporaneous collection and analyses of human and retail-chicken isolates from Grampian were carried out over a 10-week period in 2001 and again in 2006 in order to determine whether the fall in the(More)
Field and laboratory studies were performed to determine whether slugs could act as novel vectors for pathogen (e.g., Escherichia coli O157) transfer from animal feces to salad vegetables. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from 0.21% of field slugs from an Aberdeenshire sheep farm. These isolates carried the verocytotoxin genes (vt1 and vt2) and the(More)
Source attribution using molecular subtypes has implicated cattle and sheep as sources of human Campylobacter infection. Whether the Campylobacter subtypes associated with cattle and sheep vary spatiotemporally remains poorly known, especially at national levels. Here we describe spatiotemporal patterns of prevalence, bacterial enumeration, and subtype(More)
Genetic variation in an infectious disease pathogen can be driven by ecological niche dissimilarities arising from different host species and different geographical locations. Whole genome sequencing was used to compare E. coli O157 isolates from host reservoirs (cattle and sheep) from Scotland and to compare genetic variation of isolates (human, animal,(More)
A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source(More)