Marion M Simmons

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BACKGROUND The majority of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases so far identified worldwide have been detected by active surveillance. Consequently the volume and quality of material available for detailed characterisation is very limiting. Here we report on a small transmission study of both atypical forms, H- and L-type BSE, in cattle to(More)
Immunohistochemistry for PrPSc is used widely in scrapie diagnosis. In natural scrapie cases the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) has revealed the existence of up to 12 different morphological types of immunostained deposits. The significance of this pattern variability in relation to genotype has not been studied extensively in natural disease. In this(More)
Different cellular and neuroanatomical types of disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation in the brain were identified in sheep of different breeds and PrP genotypes exposed to experimental or natural scrapie infection. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains of 43 sheep with clinical signs compatible with scrapie revealed 12 different(More)
Sixty Romney sheep of three prion protein genotypes were dosed orally at six months of age with an inoculum prepared from the brains of cattle clinically affected with BSE, and 15 sheep were left undosed as controls. They were randomly assigned within genotype to groups and were sequentially euthanased and examined postmortem at intervals of six or 12(More)
Scrapie belongs to a group of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Two different categories of naturally occurring scrapie have been identified: classical scrapie, which was first recorded around 1750, and atypical scrapie or ‘Nor-98’, which was first identified in Norway in 1998. The molecular characteristics(More)
This study examines tissues from sequential-kill, time-course pathogenesis studies to refine estimates of the age at which disease-specific PrP (PrP(Sc)) can first be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and related peripheral nervous system ganglia of cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Such estimates are important for risk(More)
To provide information on dose–response and aid in modelling the exposure dynamics of the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom groups of cattle were exposed orally to a range of different doses of brainstem homogenate of known infectious titre from clinical cases of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Interim data from this study was published(More)
The continuous monitoring of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases is an integral component of European research and surveillance programmes, to ensure that any changes in the presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in cattle can be detected and defined. Monitoring is generally limited to the brainstem at the level of the(More)