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The abuse of psychoactive 'bath salts' containing cathinones such as 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a growing public health concern, yet little is known about their pharmacology. Here, we evaluated the effects of MDPV and related drugs using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays were performed in rat brain(More)
The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of 'second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including(More)
Efflux of dopamine through the dopamine transporter (DAT) is critical for the psychostimulatory properties of amphetamines, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a key role in this efflux. CaMKIIalpha bound to the distal C terminus of DAT and colocalized with DAT in(More)
The physiological function of neurotransmitter transporter proteins like the serotonin transporter (SERT) is reuptake of neurotransmitter that terminates synaptic serotoninergic transmission. SERT can operate in reverse direction and be induced by SERT substrates including 5-HT, tyramine and the positively charged methyl-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), as well(More)
Dopamine (DA) signaling at synapses is tightly coordinated through opposing mechanisms of vesicular fusion-mediated DA release and transporter-mediated DA clearance. Altered brain DA signaling is suspected to underlie multiple brain disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(More)
Duramycin (Moli1901) is being developed for the treatment of reduced mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis. This study was conducted to estimate lung residence time and systemic exposure and to assess whether duramycin causes an inflammatory response. Six volunteers were administered a single dose (7.5 mg) of nebulized duramycin and underwent(More)
We studied two non-neurotoxic amphetamine derivatives (methyl-thioamphetamine, MTA and N,N-dimethylMTA, DMMTA) interacting with serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERTs) with affinities comparable to that of p-Cl-amphetamine (pCA). The rank order for their maximal effects in inducing both [(3)H]5-HT release from rat brain synaptosomes or hSERT-expressing(More)
Amphetamine congeners [e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA), or "ecstasy"] are substrates for monoamine transporters (i.e., the transporters for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine); however, their in vivo-action relies on their ability to promote monoamine efflux. The mechanistic basis for this counter transport remains enigmatic. We tested(More)
The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates neurotransmission by removing serotonin from the synaptic cleft. In addition, it is the site of action of antidepressants (which block the transporter) and of amphetamines (which induce substrate efflux). We explored the functional importance of the N terminus in mediating the action of amphetamines by focusing(More)
In the central nervous system, levels of extraneuronal dopamine are controlled primarily by the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Multiple signaling pathways regulate transport activity, substrate efflux, and other DAT functions through currently unknown mechanisms. DAT is phosphorylated by protein kinase C within a serine cluster at the distal end(More)