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The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, an automatic tool-based approach is described to bound worst-case data cache performance. The given approach works on fully optimized code, performs the analysis over the entire control ow of a program, detects and exploits both spatial and temporal locality within data references, produces results(More)
The use of caches poses a difficult tradeoff for architects of real-time systems. While caches provide significant performance advantages, they have also been viewed as inherently unpredictable since the behavior of a cache reference depends upon the history of the previous references. The use of caches will only be suitable for real-time systems if a(More)
Predicting the execution time of code segments in real-time systems is challenging.M ost recently designed machines contain pipelines and caches. Pipeline hazards may result in multicycle delays. Instruction or data memory references may not be found in cache and these misses typically requireseveral cycles to resolve.W hether an instruction will stall due(More)
Recently designed machines contain pipelines and caches. While both features provide significant performance advantages, theyalso pose problems for predicting execution time of code segments in real-time systems. Pipeline hazards may result in multicycle delays. Instruction or data memory references may not be found in cache and these misses typically(More)
Predicting the execution times of straight-line code sequences is a fundamental problem in the design and evaluation of hard-real-time systems. The reliability of system-level timings and schedulability analysis rests on the accuracy of execution time predictions for the basic schedulable units of work. Obtaining such predictions for contemporary(More)
Predicting the execution times of straight-line code sequences is a fundamental problem in the design and evaluation of hard-real-time systems. The reliability of system-level timings and schedulability analysis rests on the accuracy of execution time predictions for the basic schedulable units of work. Obtaining such predictions for contemporary(More)
Real-time programmersh ave to deal with the problem of relating timing constraints associated with source code to sequences of machine instructions. This paper describes an environment to assist usersi nt he specification and analysis of timing constraints. A user is allowed specify timing constraints within the source code of a C program. Au ser interface(More)
Real-time programmers have to deal with the problem of relating timing constraints associated with source code lines to sequences of machine instructions. This paper describes an interface that was developed to assist users in this task. Portions of programs can be quickly selected and the corresponding bounded times, source code lines, and machine(More)