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The human gut contains approximately 10(15) bacteriophages (the 'phageome'), probably the richest concentration of biological entities on earth. Mining and exploiting these potential 'agents of change' is an attractive prospect. For many years, phages have been used to treat bacterial infections in humans and more recently have been approved to reduce(More)
Dairy propionibacteria are Actinobacteria, mainly isolated from dairy environments. Propionibacterium freudenreichii has been used for a long time as a ripening culture in Swiss-type cheese manufacture, and is more and more considered for its potent probiotic effects. This review summarises the knowledge on the main P. freudenreichii pathways and the main(More)
With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria the use of bacteriophages (phages) is gaining renewed interest as promising anti-microbial agents. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize phages from human fecal samples. Three new coliphages, ɸAPCEc01, ɸAPCEc02 and ɸAPCEc03, were isolated. Their phenotypic and genomic characteristics, and(More)
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. This study investigates the molecular diversity and the population structure of this bacterium via multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Internal fragments of seven genes sequenced for 113 strains of different subspecies and origins allowed the resolution of 46 sequence(More)
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C). Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C), inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To(More)
Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An(More)
Seven Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains exhibited similar responses when placed at 4°C. They slowed down cell machinery, displayed cold stress responses, and rerouted their carbon metabolism toward trehalose and glycogen synthesis, both accumulated in cells. These results highlight the molecular basis of long-term survival of P. freudenreichii in the(More)
PFGE is a valuable tool for assessing Listeria monocytogenes strain interrelatedness. It is based on the study of total bacterial DNA restriction patterns. Cells are embedded in agarose plugs before being lysed. The released DNA is then digested into large fragments by restriction enzymes. As DNA fragments are too large to be separated by traditional(More)
Each cheese producer is responsible by the legislation for the number of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and is required to prove that numbers will not exceed 100 cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the cheese. Even in the case of hard-cheese such as Cheddar cheese, the absence of growth of List. monocytogenes during ripening has to be demonstrated to(More)
The objective of this study was to model and quantify the level of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk cheese (RMc) and pasteurized milk cheese (PMc) from farm to fork using a Bayesian inference approach combined with a quantitative risk assessment. The modeling approach included a prediction of contamination arising from the farm environment as well from(More)