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OBJECTIVES To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium(More)
BACKGROUND Food fortification is a viable strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations. In Southeast Asia, recent growth and consolidation of the food industry provides an opportunity to explore whether certain widely consumed processed foods could contribute to micronutrient status if they are made with adequately fortified staples and(More)
Energy and micronutrient deficiency remain prevalent among Filipino children. Juice drinks are commonly consumed and could be a viable vehicle for fortification to supplement the nutrient gap. This study determined the effects of a newly developed non-carbonated fortified juice drink on the iron, zinc and nutritional status of schoolchildren. One hundred(More)
BACKGROUND Rice, the staple food of the Philippines, is an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to combat the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia. A previous study among schoolchildren supplemented with iron-fortified rice showed a significant reduction in the rate of iron-deficiency anemia from 100% to 33%. OBJECTIVE To document the processes(More)
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in the Philippines is a serious public health problem. Fortifying rice offers a great opportunity to control IDA. However, information on other types of fortificants that can be used is scarce. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of two types of iron fortificants in rice in improving the hematological status of(More)
BACKGROUND The Sixth National Nutrition Survey 2003 revealed that the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity among Filipino female adults (30.8%) was found in the age group from 40 to 59 years. Obesity is associated with a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Low calcium intake has been identified(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We combined these data with food balance sheets available in(More)
BACKGROUND Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are a chronic lack of vitamins and minerals and constitute a huge public health problem. MNDs have severe health consequences and are particularly harmful during early childhood due to their impact on the physical and cognitive development. We estimate the costs of illness due to iron deficiency (IDA), vitamin A(More)
We used the World Health Organization's recommended procedures to establish desirable fortificant levels for three problem micronutrients in children's diets, based on dietary data collected earlier from Filipino (n = 1374; 6-36 months), Mongolian (n = 179; 12-36 months) and Cambodian (n = 177; 12-36 months) children. Prevalence of inadequate and excessive(More)
BACKGROUND Food fortification is the best long-term approach for reducing the incidence of iron deficiency. OBJECTIVE To determine iron absorption from NaFeEDTA-fortified oat beverages without and with vitamin C. MATERIALS AND METHODS Iron absorption in 19 apparently healthy 6-year-old children was studied. Two oat beverages fortified with iron (labeled(More)