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Dear Sirs: The aim of anti-HIV treatment in pregnancy is the suppression of the HIV-1 RNA viral load in the plasma before delivery [1] to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the infection. The achievement of this outcome may be complicated in pregnant women who have been treated with multiple drugs by the lack of active drugs available. Although there(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of chronic coinfection with hepatitis viruses on the response to therapy against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) remains debated. METHODS In a prospective cohort study, the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) serostatus on the outcome of potent HIV-1 therapy was analyzed in HIV-1-infected patients(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemiology of acute hepatitis C has changed during the past decade in Western countries. Acute HCV infection has a high rate of chronicity, but it is unclear when patients with acute infection should be treated. METHODS To evaluate current sources of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in Italy and to assess the rate of and factors(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Inadequate data are available about retreatment of nonresponders to interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a 48-week therapy with pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus high-dose ribavirin in patients who have failed to respond to the combination. Treatment up to 48 weeks also in patients who have(More)
BACKGROUND In August, 1997, a woman with no history of travel to malarious regions developed Plasmodium vivax malaria. She lived in a rural area of Italy where indigenous Anophyles labranchiae mosquitoes were present. METHODS AND FINDINGS An environmental investigation was done within a 3 km radius of the patient's house. Adult mosquitoes and larvae were(More)
UNLABELLED Therapy of acute hepatitis C (AHC) has not yet been standardized and several issues are still unresolved. This open, randomized, multicenter trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a 24-week course of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) alpha-2b versus a 12-week course of Peg-IFN alpha-2b alone or with ribavirin (RBV) in AHC patients. One hundred(More)
The molecular evolution of HCV 2c in a case of vertical transmission was studied by comparing the virus quasispecies in the sera from the mother and from the child in a two-year follow-up. The positivity of HCV-RNA since the delivery accounted for an in-utero infection. The Core-E1 genome region (nt 928-1225) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
The Italian recommendations for the therapy of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related disease were issued in 2008. Subsequently in 2008 the nucleotide analogue (NA) Tenofovir was approved for antiviral treatment. The introduction of this important new drug has called for the current guidelines update, which includes some additional revisions: (a) the indication(More)
To evaluate the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the course of hepatitis C (HCV) infection, we studied the biological and virological characteristics of 23 HCV/HIV-coinfected HAART-naive patients. The HCV genotype, HCV and HIV viral loads, serum alanine aminotransferase, CD4+ and CD8+ cell/mm3 were determined at baseline, 1 month, 6(More)
In a prospective study of 33 infants born to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive human immunodeficiency virus-negative mothers the vertical transmission of HCV occurred in 6.8%. The evolution of HCV infection in two babies was studied from birth up to 5 or 6 years of age, and the sequencing of the hypervariable region (HVR) of the putative envelope-encoding E2(More)