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We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with melanoma, ipilimumab (an antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4]) prolongs overall survival, and nivolumab (an antibody against the programmed death 1 [PD-1] receptor) produced durable tumor regression in a phase 1 trial. On the basis of their distinct immunologic mechanisms of action and supportive(More)
BACKGROUND Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, can result in durable responses in patients with melanoma who have progressed after ipilimumab and BRAF inhibitors. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab compared with investigator's choice of chemotherapy (ICC) as a second-line or later-line treatment in patients(More)
PURPOSE To determine the short- and long-term efficacy and toxicity of the high-dose intravenous bolus interleukin 2 (IL-2) regimen in patients with metastatic melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred seventy assessable patients were entered onto eight clinical trials conducted between 1985 and 1993. IL-2 (Proleukin [aldesleukin]; Chiron Corp,(More)
PURPOSE Programmed death 1 is an immune checkpoint that suppresses antitumor immunity. Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, was active and generally well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts. We report overall survival (OS), response(More)
PURPOSE Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells that downmodulates effector functions and limits the generation of immune memory. PD-1 blockade can mediate tumor regression in a substantial proportion of patients with melanoma, but it is not known whether this is associated with extended survival or(More)
Recent strategies targeting the interaction of the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) with its receptor, PD-1, resulted in promising activity in early phase clinical trials. In this study, we used various antibodies and in situ mRNA hybridization to measure PD-L1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a quantitative fluorescence (QIF)(More)
PURPOSE A strain of Salmonella typhimurium (VNP20009), attenuated by chromosomal deletion of the purI and msbB genes, was found to target to tumor and inhibit tumor growth in mice. These findings led to the present phase I study of the intravenous infusion of VNP20009 to patients with metastatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS In cohorts consisting of three(More)
PURPOSE To determine the efficacy and toxicity of a high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) regimen in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred fifty-five assessable patients were entered onto seven phase II clinical trials. Proleukin (aldesleukin; Chiron Corp, Emeryville, CA) 600,000 or 720,000 IU/kg was administered by(More)
Activating mutations in BRAF kinase are common in melanomas. Clinical trials with PLX4032, the mutant-BRAF inhibitor, show promising preliminary results in patients selected for the presence of V600E mutation. However, activating V600K mutation is the other most common mutation, yet patients with this variant are currently excluded from the PLX4032 trials.(More)