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In this paper a novel construction of an active quenching circuit intended for single-photon detection is presented, along with a few original methods for its evaluation. The circuit has been combined with a standard avalanche photodiode C30902S to form a single-photon detector. This detector has a dead time of 39 ns, maximum random counting frequency of 14(More)
The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} oscillations in appearance mode, i.e., by detecting the τ leptons produced in charged current ν_{τ} interactions. The experiment took data from 2008 to 2012 in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso beam. The observation of the ν_{μ}→ν_{τ} appearance, achieved with four candidate events in a subsample of(More)
We report upon the realization of a novel fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The(More)
The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos from the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km with much higher accuracy than previous studies conducted with accelerator neutrinos. The measurement is based on high-statistics data taken by OPERA in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Dedicated(More)
Random numbers are needed in many areas: cryptography, Monte Carlo computation and simulation, industrial testing and labeling, hazard games, gambling, etc. Our assumption has been that random numbers cannot be computed; because digital computers operate deterministically, they cannot produce random numbers. Instead, random numbers are best obtained using(More)
In this work we investigate operation in the Geiger mode of the new single photon avalanche photo diode (SPAD) SAP500 manufactured by Laser Components. This SPAD is sensitive in the range 400-1000 nm and has a conventional reach-through structure which ensures good quantum efficiency at the long end of the spectrum. By use of passive and active quenching(More)
We present a first random number generator (RNG) which simultaneously uses independent spatial and temporal quantum randomness contained in an optical system. Availability of the two independent sources of entropy makes the RNG resilient to hardware failure and signal injection attacks. We show that the deviation from randomness of the generated numbers can(More)