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Osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity are commonly observed in the process of aging, and recent evidence suggests a potential interconnection of these syndromes with common pathophysiology. The term osteosarcopenic obesity has been coined to describe the concurrent appearance of obesity in individuals with low bone and muscle mass. Although our(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Physical activity is associated with lower cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. However, the effects of different exercise modalities on arterial stiffness are currently unclear. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of exercise modalities (aerobic, resistance or combined) on pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation(More)
High adiposity in middle age is associated with higher dementia risk. The association between weight loss and cognitive function in older adults is still controversial. A meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the effectiveness of intentional weight loss on cognitive function in overweight and obese adults. A structured strategy was used to search(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the attitudinal and perceptual components of body image and its link with body mass index (BMI) in a sample of urban Gambians. We also looked at cross-cultural differences in body image and views on attractiveness between Gambians and Americans. METHODS Four groups of 50 subjects were assessed: men 14- 25y (YM); women 14-25y(More)
Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both(More)
OBJECTIVES Obesity is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Whether weight loss improves cognition in older obese adults is not known. The objective was to investigate the effects of intentional weight loss on physical and cognitive function in middle-aged and older obese adults attending a weight loss clinic. METHOD Eleven male and 39 female(More)
Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is assuming a prominent role as a risk factor because of the double metabolic burden derived from low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and excess adiposity (obesity). The increase in obesity prevalence rates in older subjects is of concern given the associated disease risks and more limited therapeutic options available in this age group.(More)
BACKGROUND Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. METHODS Forty-four young healthy women [age range(More)
The science of body composition is based on a series of models characterized by progressive levels of anatomical complexity: atomic, molecular, cellular, functional tissue, and whole body. The physiological characterization of the different components included in each model is based on a range of specific methods that exploit basic notions of physiology,(More)
Diets including food products rich in inorganic nitrate are associated with lower blood pressure (BP). The evidence for the BP-lowering effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot in randomized clinical trials has not been systematically assessed. The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials that examined(More)