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We established two immortalized cell lines from cerebral cortex of normal (CNh) and trisomy 16 (CTb) mouse fetuses, an animal model of human trisomy 21. Those cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ dyes, Indo-1 and Fluo-3, exhibited increments of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in response to external glutamate, NMDA, AMPA and kainate. CTb cells exhibited(More)
In previous papers we proposed that an increase in delta EEG activity during mental tasks might be related to an increase in subjects' attention to internal processing. In this paper we have made a narrow band analysis to detect those EEG frequencies that change selectively during the performance of a mental task that requires attention to internal(More)
In this study we demonstrate the existence of different patterns of EEG activation during the performance of 4 different tasks involving different components of mental calculation in normal subjects. The EEG was recorded in all monopolar leads of the 10/20 system using linked ear lobes as reference. Absolute and relative power were calculated in the delta(More)
EEG spectral parameters were computed in a group of children with different degrees of difficulty in learning to read and write. For statistical analyses, Z-transformed values according to normative age-regression equations were used to control the age effects. Canonical Correlation Analysis between absolute power in different bands and the categories of(More)
We analyzed test-retest reliability of EEG coherence during rest and during two cognitive tasks: one verbal, the search for a synonym, and the other consisting of mental mathematical calculations. The experiment was performed twice, with a month's interval between each session. Coherence between all pairwise combinations of the EEG recorded in 15 leads was(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the N400 effect is sensitive to automatic or controlled processes. METHODS Two experiments were performed. In one experiment, directly related word pairs were used. In the other experiment, mediated-related word pairs were used. In order to reduce controlled processes, each experiment consisted of 3 tasks: Low- and(More)
Although poor readers (PR) are considered the major group among reading-disabled children, there are not event-related potentials (ERP) studies reported of PR on the subject. In this study, attentional and memory processes were studied in an auditory oddball task in PR and normal controls. ERP to auditory stimuli were recorded in 19 leads of the 10/20(More)
Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 10 subjects in two different conditions: (1) subjects were required to reorder five visually presented letters in order to form a word and provide a verbal response (task condition); (2) subjects were presented with a control stimulus with the same physical characteristics as the experimental(More)
The age effect on coherence has been studied in control (98) and learning-disabled (LD, 54) school-aged children (from 6.0 to 16.8 years old). The EEG recordings were made at rest in 15 leads, and 105 pairwise combinations for coherence were calculated (each lead was compared with all the rest) for delta, theta, alpha, beta and total frequency bands. A(More)
A follow-up study on EEG coherence values was carried out with 46 school-age children divided into three pedagogical groups considering their reading and writing abilities (normal subject and children with mild and with serious reading-writing problems). EEGs were recorded at rest, with eyes closed in 15 referential derivations that gave 105 possible(More)