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The human cytidine deaminase family APOBEC3 represents a novel group of proteins in the field of innate defense mechanisms that has been shown to be active against a variety of retroviruses. Here we examined whether members of the APO-BEC3 family have an impact on retrotransposition of human long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1s or L1s). Using a(More)
The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are part of the intrinsic defense of cells against retroviruses. Lentiviruses and spumaviruses have evolved essential accessory proteins, Vif and Bet, respectively, which counteract the APOBEC3 proteins. We show here that Bet of the Prototype foamy virus inhibits the antiviral APOBEC3C activity by a mechanism distinct to Vif:(More)
SIVagm does not induce disease in its African green monkey (AGM) host. In comparison, the hybrid simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P that carries the HIV env gene induces disease in rhesus macaques more rapidly than the SIVmac parent virus. To address the possibility that this enhancement of disease by HIV env would also occur when present in(More)
Human APOBEC3 (A3) proteins form part of the intrinsic immunity to retroviruses. Carrying 1 or 2 copies of a cytidine deaminase motif, A3s act by deamination of retroviral genomes during reverse transcription. HIV-1 overcomes this inhibition by the Vif protein, which prevents incorporation of A3 into virions. In this study we modeled and probed the(More)
The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene(More)
Cellular cytidine deaminases from the APOBEC3 family are potent restriction factors that are able to block the replication of retroviruses. Consequently, retroviruses have evolved a variety of different mechanisms to counteract inhibition by APOBEC3 proteins. Lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) express Vif, which interferes with APOBEC3(More)
APOBEC4 (A4) is a member of the AID/APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases. In this study we found a high mRNA expression of A4 in human testis. In contrast, there were only low levels of A4 mRNA detectable in 293T, HeLa, Jurkat or A3.01 cells. Ectopic expression of A4 in HeLa cells resulted in mostly cytoplasmic localization of the protein. To test whether(More)
Lentiviruses have evolved the Vif protein to counteract APOBEC3 (A3) restriction factors by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. Previous studies have identified important residues in the interface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif and human APOBEC3C (hA3C) or human APOBEC3F (hA3F). However, the interaction between primate A3C(More)
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