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Careful normalization is essential when using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to compare mRNA levels between biopsies from different individuals or cells undergoing different treatment. Generally this involves the use of internal controls, such as mRNA specified by a housekeeping gene, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), or accurately(More)
We have developed a new assay, ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells), which allows the counting and the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in patients with carcinoma, using peripheral blood sample volumes as small as 1 ml. Using this assay, epithelial tumor cells can be isolated individually by(More)
The involvement of the forebrain cholinergic system in arousal, learning and memory has been well established. Other neurotransmitters such as GABA and glutamate may be involved in the mechanisms of memory by modulating the forebrain cholinergic pathways. We studied the activity of cortical and hippocampal cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems(More)
The release of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine from the striatum of young (3 months), mature (12 months), and old (22 months), freely moving male rats was investigated by using a microdialysis fiber inserted transversally in the striatum. In old rats basal extracellular glutamate and aspartate levels were decreased vs. young rats (-38 and -49%,(More)
The region q13-15 of chromosome 12 contains SAS, CDK4, and MDM2 genes that are rearranged or amplified in a variety of human sarcomas. This study evaluated SAS gene amplification, and MDM2 and CDK4 protein expression in 20 tumor samples of central low-grade osteosarcoma (16 primary, 3 recurrences, 1 lung metastasis). SAS amplification was analyzed by(More)
High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) provides a valid approach to efficiently detect DNA genetic and somatic mutations. In this study, HRMA was used for the screening of 116 colorectal cancers (CRCs) to detect hot-spot mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes. Mutational hot spots on the PIK3CA gene, exons 9 and 20, were also screened. Direct sequencing(More)
Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) represent a "liquid biopsy of the tumor" which might allow real-time monitoring of cancer biology and therapies in individual patients. CTCs are extremely rare in the blood stream and their analysis is technically challenging. The CellSearch(®) system provides the enumeration of CTCs with prognostic significance in patients(More)
The BATLE LE TCA-100 tumour chemosensitivity assay has been used to evaluate chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity of cultured tumour cell lines. Studies were performed using test drug concentrations calibrated to discriminate sensitivity and resistance of clinical specimens. Strong sensitivity which appeared to be inconsistent with clinical experience was(More)
AIMS Real-time PCR, based on TaqMan chemistry, was used to detect Biscogniauxia mediterranea, a fungal pathogen that after a long endophytic phase may cause charcoal disease in oak trees. METHODS AND RESULTS Specific primers and probe were designed and tested on axenic cultures of B. mediterranea and other fungi commonly colonizing oaks. Twig samples were(More)
Studies on miRNA profiling revealed that a large number of them are significantly deregulated in human cancers. The molecular mechanisms of this deregulation are not totally clarified, even if genetics and epigenetics are frequently involved. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variation in the human genome. A SNP into(More)