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The involvement of the forebrain cholinergic system in arousal, learning and memory has been well established. Other neurotransmitters such as GABA and glutamate may be involved in the mechanisms of memory by modulating the forebrain cholinergic pathways. We studied the activity of cortical and hippocampal cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems(More)
The release of glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and taurine from the striatum of young (3 months), mature (12 months), and old (22 months), freely moving male rats was investigated by using a microdialysis fiber inserted transversally in the striatum. In old rats basal extracellular glutamate and aspartate levels were decreased vs. young rats (-38 and -49%,(More)
Careful normalization is essential when using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to compare mRNA levels between biopsies from different individuals or cells undergoing different treatment. Generally this involves the use of internal controls, such as mRNA specified by a housekeeping gene, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), or accurately(More)
Extracellular adenosine in the striatum of adult male rats was measured by the use of a microdialysis fibre inserted transversely in the striatum. The adenosine concentration in samples of perfusate was determined by HPLC coupled to U.V. detection. The adenosine concentration (corrected for recovery) decreased after implantation of the probe. Two hours(More)
Extracellular adenosine concentrations, evaluated by microdialysis in the striatum of young and aged rats, were 66.8 +/- 0.7 and 71.6 +/- 1.0 nM, respectively. The adenosine deaminase inhibitor EHNA (100 microM) increased the extracellular adenosine levels in young rats only. The adenosine kinase inhibitor iodotubercidin (10 microM) brought about the same(More)
1. Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator that exerts its depressant effect on neurons by acting on the A1 adenosine receptor subtype. Excitatory actions of adenosine, mediated by the activation of the A2 adenosine receptor subtype, have also been shown in the central nervous system. 2. Adenosine A2a receptors are highly localized in the striatum, as(More)
The release of both radioactive and endogenous purines was investigated in rat brain cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices at rest and following stimulation with electrical fields. Purines were labelled by incubating the slices with 3H-adenine. The purine efflux at rest and that evoked by electrical stimulation (10 Hz. 5 min) was analyzed by HPLC with(More)
The adenosine concentration in samples of perfusate was determined 24 h after implantation of microdialysis fibre in the cortex. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorometric detector was used. K+ (100 mM) depolarization was followed by a 2- to 4-fold increase in adenosine efflux. The addition of tetrodotoxin (1 microM) to the perfusate(More)
Male Wistar rats (3- and 20-month-old) were perfused i.c.v. with 1.5 micrograms of either nerve growth factor (NGF) or cytochrome C daily for 14 days. At the end of the infusion, the object-recognition test was carried out and extracellular acetylcholine levels (ACh) were measured in the cortex and hippocampus by transversal microdialysis technique. In(More)
The effect of excitatory amino acids and their antagonists on adenosine and inosine release has been investigated on unstimulated and electrically stimulated hippocampal slices. On unstimulated slices N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), quisqualate and glutamate concentration-dependently evoked the release of adenosine and inosine. The effect of NMDA and(More)