Mario Patrizio

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The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat is produced in the early phase of infection and is essential for virus replication. Together with other viral products, Tat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). As HIV-1 infection in the brain is very limited and macrophage/microglial cells are the(More)
Glutamate release from rat and mouse microglia subcultures grown in a serum-free medium was substantially greater in the presence than in the absence of a physiological concentration of glutamine (0.5 mM). Mouse microglia produced and released more glutamate than rat microglia. Glutamate accumulation in the medium increased with time and cell density, which(More)
In order to study the voltage-dependent ion channels in microglia, and their possible modulation by pro-inflammatory substances like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) we employed the patch-clamp technique on purified rat microglial cell subcultures grown for 1 - 5 days in control condition or after a 24 hour treatment with those(More)
Kainate (KA), quisqualate (QA), and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) stimulated gamma-aminobutyric acid [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from cultured cerebellar type 2 astrocytes and from their bipotential precursors. The evoked release was prevented by the antagonist 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline(More)
Amino acid release studies were performed by an HPLC procedure using differentiated rat cerebellar granule cell cultures. Kainic acid (KA; 50 microM) caused an increase (about threefold) in the release of endogenous glutamate and a lesser, but statistically significant, increase in the release of glutamine, glycine, threonine, taurine, and alanine.(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether endogenous amino acids are released from type-1 and type-2 astrocytes following non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation and whether such release is related to cell swelling. Amino acid levels and release were measured by HPLC in secondary cultures from neonatal rat cortex, highly enriched in(More)
Cellular distribution and activation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) of classical (alpha, betaI, betaII,gamma), novel (delta, epsilon, theta, eta), and atypical (zeta, iota) protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms were studied in cultured rat neonatal microglial and astroglial cells by Western blot analysis. Among the classical isoforms, only betaII was(More)
We studied the modulation by protein kinase C (PKC) of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation induced by prostaglandin (PG) E2 in rat neonatal microglial cultures. Short pretreatment of microglia with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or 4beta-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, which activate PKC, but not with the inactive 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate,(More)
We studied the regulation of cyclic AMP responses by protein kinase C (PKC) in purified astrocyte and microglia cultures obtained from the neonatal rat brain. In astrocytes, a 10-min treatment with the phorbol esters phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 4beta-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4beta-PDD) (but not with 4alpha-PDD) or with diacylglycerol, which(More)
Current evidence indicates that estrogens, in particular 17β-estradiol (E2), play a crucial role in the gender bias of autoimmune diseases although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Immune cells have estrogen receptors (ERs), i.e., ERα and ERβ, that play pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, respectively, and the(More)