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The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat is produced in the early phase of infection and is essential for virus replication. Together with other viral products, Tat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). As HIV-1 infection in the brain is very limited and macrophage/microglial cells are the(More)
Amino acid release studies were performed by an HPLC procedure using differentiated rat cerebellar granule cell cultures. Kainic acid (KA; 50 microM) caused an increase (about threefold) in the release of endogenous glutamate and a lesser, but statistically significant, increase in the release of glutamine, glycine, threonine, taurine, and alanine.(More)
The goal of our study was to assess whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coat protein gp120 induces functional alterations in astrocytes and microglia, known for their reactivity and involvement in most types of brain pathology. We hypothesized that gp120-induced anomalies in glial functions, if present, might be mediated by changes in the levels(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether endogenous amino acids are released from type-1 and type-2 astrocytes following non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation and whether such release is related to cell swelling. Amino acid levels and release were measured by HPLC in secondary cultures from neonatal rat cortex, highly enriched in(More)
Kainate (KA), quisqualate (QA), and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) stimulated gamma-aminobutyric acid [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from cultured cerebellar type 2 astrocytes and from their bipotential precursors. The evoked release was prevented by the antagonist 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline(More)
We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT) and other cAMP-elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 on human resting T lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated the function of these cells. We found that purified human CD4(+) T lymphocytes pretreated with CT were able to inhibit proliferation of autologous PBMC in a(More)
In order to study the voltage-dependent ion channels in microglia, and their possible modulation by pro-inflammatory substances like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) we employed the patch-clamp technique on purified rat microglial cell subcultures grown for 1 - 5 days in control condition or after a 24 hour treatment with those(More)
Glutamate release from rat and mouse microglia subcultures grown in a serum-free medium was substantially greater in the presence than in the absence of a physiological concentration of glutamine (0.5 mM). Mouse microglia produced and released more glutamate than rat microglia. Glutamate accumulation in the medium increased with time and cell density, which(More)
Cellular distribution and activation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) of classical (alpha, betaI, betaII,gamma), novel (delta, epsilon, theta, eta), and atypical (zeta, iota) protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms were studied in cultured rat neonatal microglial and astroglial cells by Western blot analysis. Among the classical isoforms, only betaII was(More)
The treatment with beta-blockers causes an enhancement of the norepinephrine-induced fetal gene response in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, we tested whether the activation of cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling antagonizes alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated fetal gene response. To address this question, the fetal gene program, of which atrial(More)